Jacques TISSEAU

Publications :
Articles de revues revues internationales
revues nationales
revues de vulgarisation
Ouvrages coordinations d'ouvrage
chapitres d'ouvrages
Brevets brevets internationaux
brevets nationaux
Articles de conférences conférences invitées
conférences internationales
conférences nationales
communications
Rapports actes de conférences
rapports nationaux
mémoires
manuels de cours


Revues internationales

[21] Buche, C., Chevaillier, P., Nédélec, A., Parenthoën, M., and Tisseau, J. Fuzzy cogntive maps for simulation of individual adaptive behaviors. Computer Animation and Virtual World (2010). [ bib | www: | .pdf ]
This paper focuses on the simulation of behavior for autonomous entities in virtual environments. The behavior of these entities must determine their responses not only to external stimuli, but also with regard to internal states. We propose to describe such behavior using fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM), whereby these internal states might be explicitly represented. This article presents the use of fuzzy cognitive maps as a tool to specify and control the behavior of individual agents. First, we describe how fuzzy cognitive maps can be used to model behavior. We then present a learning algorithm allowing the adaptation of FCMs through observation.

[20] Desmeulles, G., Bonneaud, S., Redou, P., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. In virtuo Experiments Based on the Multi-Interaction System Framework: the RéISCOP Meta-Model. Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, CMES 47, 3 (2009), 299-330. [ bib | .html | .pdf ]
Virtual reality can enable computer scientists and domain experts to perform in virtuo experiments of numerical models of complex systems. Such dynamical and interactive experiments are indeed needed when it comes to complex systems with complex dynamics and structures. In this context, the question of the modeling tool to study such models is crucial. Such tool, called a virtuoscope, must enable the virtual experimentation of models inside a conceptual and experimental framework for imagining, modeling and experimenting the complexity of the studied systems. This article describes a conceptual framework and a meta model, called RéISCOP , that enable the construction and simulation of models of biological, chemical or physical systems. The multi-interaction conceptual framework, based on the reification of interactions, is built upon the concepts of autonomy, structural coupling and synchronous scheduling of those reified interactions. Applications and virtual reality experiments described in the last section show the expressiveness of this approach and its capacity to actually formulate heterogeneous models in heterogeneous time and space scales, which is required for studying biological complex systems.

[19] De Loor, P., Manac'h, K., and Tisseau, J. Enaction-Based Artificial Intelligence: Toward Co-evolution with Humans in the Loop. Minds and Machines 19 (2009), 319-343. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This article deals with the links between the enaction paradigm and artificial intelligence. Enaction is considered a metaphor for artificial intelligence, as a number of the notions which it deals with are deemed incompatible with the phenomenal field of the virtual. After explaining this stance, we shall review previous works regarding this issue in terms of artificial life and robotics. We shall focus on the lack of recognition of co-evolution at the heart of these approaches. We propose to explicitly integrate the evolution of the environment into our approach in order to refine the ontogenesis of the artificial system, and to compare it with the enaction paradigm. The growing complexity of the ontogenetic mechanisms to be activated can therefore be compensated by an interactive guidance system emanating from the environment. This proposition does not however, resolve that of the relevance of the meaning created by the machine (sense-making). Such reflections lead us to integrate human interaction into this environment in order to construct relevant meaning in terms of participative artificial intelligence. This raises a number of questions with regards to setting up an enactive interaction. The article concludes by exploring a number of issues, thereby enabling us to associate current approaches with the principles of morphogenesis, guidance, the phenomenology of interactions and the use of minimal enactive interfaces in setting up experiments which will deal with the problem of artificial intelligence in a variety of enaction-based ways.

[18] Simonnet, M., Jacobson, D., Vieilledent, S., and Tisseau, J. SeaTouch: a haptic and auditory maritime environment for non visual cognitive mapping of blind sailors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5756 (2009), 212-226. [ bib | www: | .pdf ]
Navigating consists of coordinating egocentric and allocentric spatial frames of reference. Virtual environments have afforded researchers in the spatial community with tools to investigate the learning of space. The issue of the transfer between virtual and real situations is not trivial. A central question is the role of frames of reference in mediating spatial knowledge transfer to external surroundings, as is the effect of different sensory modalities accessed in simulated and real worlds. This challenges the capacity of blind people to use virtual reality to explore a scene without graphics. The present experiment involves a haptic and auditory maritime virtual environment. In triangulation tasks, we measure systematic errors and preliminary results show an ability to learn configurational knowledge and to navigate through it without vision. Subjects appeared to take advantage of getting lost in an egocentric haptic view in the virtual environment to improve performances in the real environment.

[17] Gaubert, L., Redou, P., and Tisseau, J. Frequency locking in tissular coupling. Dynamics of Continuous, Discret and Impulsive Systems - Series B: Applications & Algorithms 16, 4 (2009), 453-470. [ bib | www: | .pdf ]
We expose a framework, inspired by biological observations, dedicated to modeling complex living systems as coupled systems. In particular, we use this framework to adress a main question in the field of living systems: the synchronization phenomenon. This kind of model, named tissular coupling, is quite general and, using different methods from those usually used in this field of research, we reach global results relative to the frequencies locking problem in both finite and continuous populations.

[16] Trinh, T.-H., Buche, C., Querrec, R., and Tisseau, J. Modeling of Errors Realized by a Human Learner in Virtual Environment for Training. International Journal of Computers, Communications and Control 4, 1 (2009), 73-81. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This study focuses on the notion of erroneous actions realized by human learners in Virtual Environments for Training. Our principal objective is to develop an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) suggesting pedagogical assistances to the hu- man teacher. For that, the ITS must obviously detect and classify erroneous actions produced by learners during the realization of procedural and collaborative work. Further, in order to better support human teacher and facilitate his comprehension, it is necessary to show the teacher why learner made an error. Addressing this issue, we firstly modeling the Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM). Then, we integrate the retrospective analysis mechanism of CREAM into our existing ITS, thus enable the system to indicate the path of probable cause-effect explaining reasons why errors have occurred.

[15] Veyret, M., Maisel, E., and Tisseau, J. Agent architecture for a real world autonomous virtual guide: interaction between the decision and perception processes and environment representation. The International Journal of Virtual Reality 2, 7 (2008), 1-10. [ bib | .html | .pdf ]
Museums like marine aquariums are facing a difficult problem when trying to deliver information to their visitors. The exhibits they propose are dynamic by definition. Each may contain multiple autonomous entities that need to be described to the visitor. Classical communication means (panels, audio-guides ...) are static and do not adapt to the constraints of such exhibits. We propose to use an autonomous virtual guide embedded inside the environment in order to describe it to the visitors. To describe this environment and the entities it contains, the agent must be able to perceive it. Doing so is a challenging task due to the dynamic and non-predictable aspects of this environment. In this article, we propose an architecture able to build a partial representation of such an environment that tends to be the “best possible representation” depending on the ongoing task. This is possible by setting up an interaction loop between the perception and decision processes of our intelligent agent. We describe this architecture and provide some results showing how this interaction effectively takes place in an experimental environment and in a real application setting.

[14] Bossard, C., Kermarrec, G., Buche, C., and Tisseau, J. Transfer of learning in virtual environment: a new challenge? Virtual Reality (Springer) 12 (2008), 151-161. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
The aim of all education is to apply what we learn in different contexts and to recognise and extend this learning to new situations. Virtual learning environments can used to build skills. Recent research in cognitive psychology and education has shown that acquisitions are linked to the initial context. This provides a challenge for virtual reality in education or training. A brief overview of transfer issues highlights five main ideas: (1) the type of transfer enables the Virtual Environment (VE) to be classified according to what is learned; (2) the transfer process can create conditions within the VE to facilitate transfer of learning; (3) specific features of VR must match and comply with transfer of learning; (4) transfer can be used to assess a VE's effectiveness; and (5) future research on transfer of learning must examine the singular context of learning. This paper discusses how new perspectives in cognitive psychology influence and promote transfer of learning through the use of virtual environments.

[13] Gaubert, L., Redou, P., Harrouet, F., and Tisseau, J. A first mathematical model of brood sorting by ants: functional self-organization without swarm-intelligence. Ecological Complexity 4, 4 (2007), 234-241. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
Brood sorting, observed in Leptothorax unifasciatus ant colonies, is a major example of social insects ability to solve problems at the collective level. Two processes characterize this phenomenon: a process of aggregation of all items in a single cluster, coupled with a process of segregation of items in concentric annuli, each containing items of different type and ordered such a way that the smallest are at the center, the largest at the periphery, and prepupæ dispersed in-between. In spite of its influence on algorithmic and robotic methods, no formal explanation of the brood-sorting phenomenon was ever given. We present a first mathematical model devoted to brood sorting. Our hypothesis about ants behavior are consciously minimal: we assume that random rules their acts, not only when they walk but also when they choose a brood item that they pick up, or beside which they deposit the one they carry. The first part of our work deals with the process of aggregation in a single cluster. The main subject of our study is the time evolution of a mathematical function linked to the notion of cluster. We prove that, whatever the number of ants acting, this function tends to decrease until it reaches a threshold that we compute: this threshold matches with the formation of the single cluster. The second part of our work deals with segregation in concentric annuli. Coupling the concept of virtual size of a brood item to the previous conclusions leads to a realistic explanation of the concentric structure observed in ant colonies. Finally, we prove the existence of a feed-back effect, so that our results suggest that brood sorting is a case of self-organization that does not involve swarm-intelligence.

[12] Simonnet, M., Guinard, J.-Y., and Tisseau, J. Preliminary work for vocal and haptic navigation software for blind sailors. International Journal on Disabilities and Human Development 5, 2 (2006), 195-201. [ bib | .pdf ]
This study aims at the conception of haptic and vocal navigation software that permits blind sailors to create and simulate ship itineraries. This question implies a problematic about the haptic strategies used by blind people to build their space representation when using maps. According to current theories, people without vision are able to construct cognitive maps of their environment but the lack of sight tends to lead them to build egocentric and sequential mental pictures of space. Nevertheless, exocentric and unified representations are more efficient. Can blind people be helped to construct more effective spatial pictures? Prior works have shown that strategies are the most important factors in spatial performance in large-scale space. To encode space in an efficient way, we made our subject use the cardinal points reference in small-scale space. During our case study, a compass establishes a frame of external cues. In this respect, we support the assumption that training based on systematic exocentric reference helps blind subjects to build unified space. At the same time, this training has led the blind sailor to change his haptic strategies to explore tactile maps and to perform better. This seems to modify his processing of space representation. Eventually, we would like to study the transfer between map representation and environment mobility. Our final point is about using strategy based on cardinal points and haptic virtual reality technologies to help the blind improve their spatial cognition.

[11] Desmeulles, G., Querrec, G., Redou, P., Kerdélo, S., Misery, L., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. The virtual reality applied to biology understanding : the in virtuo experimentation. Expert Systems with Applications 30, 1 (2006), 82-92. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
The advent of the computer and computer science, and in particular virtual reality, offers new experiment possibilities with numerical simulations and introduces a new type of investigation for the complex systems study: the in virtuo experiment. This work lies on the framework of multi-agent systems. We propose a generic model for systems biology based on reification of the interactions, on a concept of organization and on a multi-model approach. By « reification » we understand that interactions are considered as autonomous agents. The aim has been to combine the systemic paradigm and the virtual reality to provide an application able to collect, simulate, experiment and understand the knowledge owned by different biologists working around an interdisciplinary subject. Here, we have been focused on the urticaria disease understanding. Autonomy is taken as a principle. The method permits to integrate different natures of model in the same application using chaotic asynchronous iterations and C++ library: ARéVi. We have modeled biochemical reactions, molecular 3D diffusion, cell organizations and mechanical 3D interactions. It also permits to embed different expert system modeling methods like fuzzy cognitive maps. This work provides a toolbox easily adaptable to new biological studies.

[10] Redou, P., Le Gal, C., Querrec, G., Rodin, V., Abgrall, J.-F., and Tisseau, J. Reaction agent: first mathematical validation of a multi-agent system for dynamical biochemical kinetics. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3808 (2005), 156-166. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
In the context of multi-agent simulation of biological complex systems, we present a reaction-agent model for biological chemical kinetics that enables interaction with the simulation during the execution. In a chemical reactor with no spatial dimension -e.g. a cell-, a reaction-agent represents an autonomous chemical reaction between several reactants : it reads the concentration of reactants, adapts its reaction speed, and modifies consequently the concentration of reaction products. This approach, where the simulation engine makes agents intervene in a chaotic and asynchronous way, is an alternative to the classical model -which is not relevant when the limits conditions change- based on differential systems. We establish formal proofs of convergence for our reaction-agent methods, generally quadratic. We illustrate our model with an example about the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.

[9] Querrec, G., Bataille, R., Rodin, V., Abgrall, J.-F., and Tisseau, J. Computer simulation of multiple myeloma in the context of systems biology. Haematologica-The Hematology Journal 90 (2005), 92-93. [ bib | .pdf ]
Cancer is complex adaptive system. We assume that multiple myeloma (MM) can be studied in the context of complexity using Systems Biology (SB). SB is a new field in biology aimed at understanding biology at systems level. We developed the In Virtuo experimentation for SB using virtual environment. Multiagent systems provide an attractive computer framework for SB and In Virtuo approachs. We implement a computer simulation supporting the maturation model of myeloma cells based on the CD45 expression. One has shown that CD45 expression decreases with the maturation of the cells and CD45 annihilation is a critical prognostic for patient survival. CD45 expression is also necessary for IL6 proliferation signals but inhibits IGF-1 proliferation signals. Moreover, CD45 expression is stimulated by IL6 and its activity inhibited by dimerization. The kinetics of CD45 dimerization depends of the molecule isoform. So, we have developed a computer simulation based on a multiagent system which integrates the model of myeloma cell previously described in their micro-environnement. The simulation shows that kinetics of MM tumor presents an exponential shape which is characteristic of the first stages of tumor growth. Next, we can observe the loss of tumor connectivity, which was previously shown to occur with tumor evolution. We assume that CD45 isoform is an important feature for the proliferation signal choice. Holistic study, by In Virtuo simulation enables simulation of emergent behavior of MM. The simulation shows the importance of the microenvironement and the CD45 isoform for tumor evolution. Moreover, we assume that our original approach may allow research of new therapeutic targets and therapies.

[8] Rodin, V., Benzinou, A., Guillaud, A., Ballet, P., Harrouet, F., Tisseau, J., and Le Bihan, J. An immune oriented multiagent system for biological image processing. Pattern Recognition 37, 4 (2004), 631-645. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
In this article, we present a parallel previous termimage processing system based on the concept of reactive agents. Our system lies in the oRis language, which allows to describe finely and simply the agents' behaviors to detect image features. We also present a method of segmentation using a multi-agent system, and two biological applications made with oRis. The stopping of this multi-agent system is implemented through a technique issued from immunology: the apoptosis.

[7] Popovici, M., Gerval, J.-P., Chevaillier, P., Tisseau, J., Serbanati, L., and Guéguen, P. Educative distributed virtual environments for children. Journal of Distance Education Technologies 2, 4 (2004), 18-40. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This paper presents a distributed virtual reality environment for children called EVE « Environnements Virtuels pour Enfants ». The virtual environment architecture is reactive agents based. The FCM-like dynamic action planning mechanism assures agent's adaptability to its environment changes. This virtual environment supports cooperation among members of a dispersed team engaged in a concurrent context. By the means of their avatars, special cases of agents, users are allowed to interact and to give decisions using cooperative mechanisms. A user-friendly interface enables teachers to create their own stories that fit with children's pedagogical requirements and generate new virtual environments according to the teacher's specifications. The implementation is based on DeepMatrix as environment server, VRML and Java as languages and Cortona VRML plug-in from ParallelGraphics. It is actually running on the Internet: http://eve.enib.fr .

[6] Nicolas, M., Abgrall, J.-F., Ballet, P., and Tisseau, J. Multiagent simulation of blood coagulation. Thrombosis and Haemostasis ISTH (2001), 19-25. [ bib ]

[5] Maffre, E., Tisseau, J., and Parenthoën, M. Virtual agents self-perception in storytelling. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2197 (2001), 155-160. [ bib | http ]
The goal of this work is self-perception modeling of autonomous agents in virtual storytelling. It is inspired from work of psychologists and neuro-physiologists. From psychology, we use fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) to model and implement believable agents'behaviours. These cognitive maps allow us to give not only sensation but also perception, in the sense that our agents perceive environment in function of their inner states or emotions. From neuro-physiology, we implement the idea that movement is simulated in the cortex before it is performed in real world. Virtual agent's self-perception is the ability to simulate different behaviours in its own imaginary space before acting in « real » world. This self-perception implemented by « simulation in the simulation » is one of the keys for the autonomy of virtual entities'decision.

[4] Favier, P.-A., De Loor, P., and Tisseau, J. Programming agent with purposes : application to autonomous shooting in virtual environments. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2197 (2001), 40-43. [ bib | http ]
This paper proposes an architecture for defining and executing agents2019 behaviour from purposes. This architecture is used for the definition of an autonomous camera which makes automatic shooting of a virtual reality scene in real time. The user or others agents program the camera in a declarative and qualitative way. Multiples purposes can be specified. In case of contradictory purposes, the camera finds a compromise or, if not possible, leave some purposes. Multiple agents programmed by purposes generate complex and credible animations.

[3] Chevaillier, P., Harrouet, F., Reignier, P., and Tisseau, J. Virtual reality and multi-agent systems for manufacturing system interactive prototyping. International Journal of Design and Innovation Research 2, 1 (2000), 90-101. [ bib | .pdf ]
This paper introduces a virtual reality platform based on a dynamic multi-agent programming language. These tools have been designed to show that simulating a multi-agent system in a virtual environment with dynamic properties can be used for interactive prototyping. This kind of prototyping has to be considered when the designed system cannot be described as a whole but as a set of autonomous components with many interactions. Due to the fact that these interactions are very complex to model before simulating the system, we propose to let the designer enter inside the system and dynamically build, tune and mend the model. The case of the flexible manufacturing system entirely corresponds to this approach. Actually, such a system can be described has a set of different models (from physical to behavioral) in interaction.

[2] Reignier, P., Harrouet, F., Morvan, S., Tisseau, J., and Duval, T. ARéVi : a virtual reality multiagent platform. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 1434 (1998), 229-240. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
ARéVi (in French, Atelier de Réalité Virtuelle) is a distributed virtual reality toolkit. Its kernel (a group of C++ classes) makes it possible to create cooperative and distributed virtual reality applications by minimizing the programming effort. ARéVi is built around a dynamic multiagent language: oRis. At any time, this language allows to stop the ongoing session, to add new entities (known or not when starting the session), to modify an entity or an entire entity family behavior. More generally, oRis gives the user the ability to interact with the agents by directly using their language, thus offering a way of immersion through the language.

[1] Tisseau, J., and Patriat, P. Identification des anomalies magnétiques sur les dorsales à faible taux d'expansion : méthode des taux fictifs. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 52, 2 (1981), 381-396. [ bib | http ]
The fit between calculated and observed magnetic anomalies from slow-spreading centers is improved when allowing for a transition zone between two inversely magnetized blocks. In this paper it is shown that these models are very easily computed by choosing a fictitious spreading rate which is slower than the real spreading rate and by changing the distance scale appropriately. With these slow fictitious spreading rates, the models are very sensitive to the relative position of the successive inversions and could be used to adjust these positions in the magnetic time scales.


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Revues nationales

[9] Bossard, C., Kermarrec, G., De Loor, P., Bénard, R., and Tisseau, J. Sport, réalité virtuelle et conception de simulations participatives : illustration dans le domaine du football avec le simulateur CoPeFoot. Intellectica 2, 52 (2009), 97-117. [ bib | .pdf ]
New perspectives for research and training in sport could be offered thanks to participative simulation and virtual reality. This paper aims at reflecting about design processing in order to enhance simulation credibility. The literature is examined to present actual simulators' interests, properties and limits for sport research and training. An original experiment of participative simulation design in team sport is proposed: an ergonomic approach was used to study experts' decision making in soccer natural setting; the decision-making model constituted a guide for choosing and implementing computer science models for the development of the virtual environment CoPeFoot (Cooperative Perception in football). The process and the results obtained are discussed thanks to the enaction paradigm. Credibility of simulation for the user should need both of regularity and surprises in the emergence of agents' (players') behaviours.

[8] Buche, C., Querrec, R., De Loor, P., Chevaillier, P., and Tisseau, J. PEGASE : un système tutoriel intelligent générique et adaptatif en environnement virtuel. Revue des sciences et technologies de l'information, Technique et Science Informatiques RSTI-TSI 28, 8 (2009), 1051-1076. [ bib | .pdf ]
This work takes place in the framework of the design of a training environment using virtual reality. In this context, we defend the thesis that it is possible to integrate a generic and adaptive intelligent tutoring system (called PEGASE) in a virtual environment, in order to provide pedagogical aid for the learner and pedagogical assistance for the trainer. Our proposal is a multi-agent system. It highlights a set of information (actions realized by the learner, domain knowledge...) used by PEGASE to take pedagogical decisions. Our study is focused (1) on knowledge representation for the environment and (2) on an adaptive pedagogical agent suggesting pedagogical assistances.

[7] Veyret, M., Maisel, E., and Tisseau, J. Guide virtuel autonome immergé dans un environnement réel dynamique. architecture générale et application à la visite guidée d'un aquarium marin. Revue des sciences et technologies de l'information, Technique et Science Informatiques RSTI-TSI 28 (2009), 831-855. [ bib | .pdf ]
Museum are always looking for new attractions and ways of communicating with visitors. Here we describe an virtual guide as a new information support for visitors of an aquarium, using augmented reality technics. The guide is able to autonomously adapt to the particular constraints of this dynamic environment through the execution of a perception/decision/action loop. Based on the environment representation and prior knowledge, the guide selects and presents suited informations to the visitor in real time. The focus of this paper is the decision system and its place in the general layout of the autonomous virtual guide.

[6] Abgrall, J.-F., Kerdélo, S., Querrec, G., , Rodin, V., Bataille, R., and Tisseau, J. Un laboratoire virtuel pour l'hématologie. Hématologie 12, spécial 1 (2006), 158. [ bib | .html | .pdf ]
Les systèmes biologiques sont complexes. La réalité virtuelle (RV) fournit un cadre conceptuel, méthodologique et expérimental bien adapté pour imaginer, modéliser et expérimenter cette complexité. Une plate-forme de RV a été développée, basée sur les systèmes multi-agents, correspondant à des entités autonomes interagissant entre elles. Deux modèles biologiques virtuels, la coagulation et le myélome multiple (MM) ont été réalisés. Le modèle de coagulation comporte toutes les protéines procoagulantes et inhibitrices, les plaquettes, les cellules endothéliales et les fibroblastes, réalisant 42 réactions. Le modèle de MM virtuel comporte les voies de transduction de l'IL-6, de l'IGF-1, du TNF, les récepteurs à ces cytokines et l'expression de CD 45. Les plasmocytes sont situés dans l'environnement médullaire et osseux. La validation des 2 modèles virtuels est obtenue par la comparaison avec des expérimentations in vitro (TQ, hémophilie, traitements de l'hémophilie, thrombophilie, test de génération de thrombine, compartimentation des myélomes selon le statut CD 45 + ou CD 45 négatif). Par les simulations, ces modèles permettent de tester des hypothèses; de choisir « in virtuo » les expérimentations à réaliser in vitro ; de préparer les essais thérapeutiques. Ces simulations stimulent la réflexion du chercheur sur le modèle, et permettent de réduire les coûts.

[5] De Loor, P., Le Bodic, L., Calvet, G., and Tisseau, J. Un simulateur d'usage pour l'évaluation des systèmes interactifs multimodaux. Revue d'Interaction Homme-Machine 7 (2006), 59-91. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This article introduces a simulator for the evaluation of multimodal systems. It draws a state of the art of simulation methods which leads to an architecture based on three models in order to simulate the interactions between the user, the artefact and the environment. The aim is to integrate the effect of perceptual troubles due to the environment in the decision making of the user. An illustrative example follows this presentation and a discussion of the work in progress ends the article.

[4] Tisseau, J., Parenthoën, M., Buche, C., and Reignier, P. Comportements perceptifs d'acteurs virtuels autonomes. Une application des cartes cognitives floues. Revue des sciences et technologies de l'information, Technique et Science Informatiques RSTI-TSI 24, 10 (2005), 1259-1293. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
We are interested here in the perceptive behaviors of autonomous virtual actors. These behaviors must determine their answers, not only according to the external stimuli, but also according to internal emotions. We propose to describe such emotional behaviors using fuzzy cognitive maps, where these internal states are explicitly represented. We detail how fuzzy cognitive maps allow the specification, the control, the internal simulation and the dynamic adaptation of the perceptive behavior of an animat. Their parallel and asynchronous execution leeds to the proposal of a behavioral architecture for virtual autonomous entities. All these are illustrated by the academic example of a non-trivial interactive fiction.

[3] Tisseau, J., and Nédélec, A. Réalité virtuelle : un contexte historique interdisciplinaire. Revue internationale de CFAO et d'infographie 17, 3-4 (2002), 263-278. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
Virtual reality has gone through many evolutions: from objects representation on a bidimensional surface, to the immersion of cooperative users evolving in a 3D numerical universe where autonomous interactive and collaborative entities live. This article aims to show that this new means or new field of investigation was made in a genuine interdisciplinary « melting pot » that came from the joint contributions of image processing, simulation, computer aided design, teleoperation, audiovisual techniques and telecommunications. Virtual reality goes beyond what it was originally made for. It definitely is, today, a new science in the engineering field. It deals with specification design and realisation of virtual and participative universes.

[2] Harrouet, F., Tisseau, J., Reignier, P., and Chevaillier, P. oRis : un environnement de simulation interactive multi-agents. Revue des sciences et technologies de l'information, Technique et Science Informatiques RSTI-TSI 21, 4 (2002), 499-524. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
oRis is a toolkit for interactive simulation : it is both an object-based concurrent programming language and an execution environment. Its features make oRis a generic platform for multiagent systems (MAS) implementation. It is a dynamically interpreted language, instance-grained which allows the user, during the execution, to observe the MAS, to interact with the agents or the environment et to modify them in line. With oRis, a MAS is compouned of agents (basically active objects) in an environment containing objets, eventually situated in space (2D or 3D) and time. oRis offers an homogenous solution for interactions, implemented as method invocation or callback or message passing (point-to-point or broadcast, synchronous or asynchronous processing). oRis offers different ways to manage the execution flows and the scheduler guarantees the equity of the time-sharing. oRis is stable and efficient. It has been used in many projects and is integrated in the ARéVi virtual reality platform.

[1] Duval, T., Morvan, S., Reignier, P., Harrouet, F., and Tisseau, J. ARéVi : une boîte à outils 3d pour des applications coopératives. Revue Calculateurs Parallèles 9, 2 (1997), 239-250. [ bib | .html | .ps ]
ARéVi is a new distributed virtual reality toolkit. Its kernel (a set of C++ classes) allows to create distributed virtual reality applications without programming. This toolkit is widely open, which allows the creation of evoluated applications like intelligent multi-agents systems simulations. It is particularly adapted for creating collaborative software : several applications (what we call ARéVi sessions) can share a common 3D universe, so several users can interact together with the same objects. In this paper, we only discuss of the collaborative features of ARéVi, and of the facilities provided by ARéVi for program dynamic evolution, essentials to cooperation.


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Revues de vulgarisation

[3] Gerbaud, S., Arnaldi, B., and Tisseau, J. GVT: virtual training in maintenance procedures. ERCIM News 71 (2007), 44-46. [ bib | http ]
While the use of real equipment for training in maintenance procedures imposes many constraints, these can be alleviated by the use of virtual reality. The GVT (General Virtual Training) project, developed in a research-industry collaboration, provides a full platform that can be used to build virtual training environments.

[2] Tisseau, J. in virtuo. ACCES International 1 (2002), 272-274. [ bib | .pdf ]
Issue des travaux interdisciplinaires sur l'image numérique de synthèse, la réalité virtuelle transcende ses origines et s'affirme aujourd'hui comme une nouvelle discipline au sein des sciences de l'ingénieur. Elle concerne la spécification, la conception et la réalisation d'univers virtuels réalistes et participatifs. Un univers virtuel est un ensemble de modèles numériques autonomes en interaction, auquel l'homme participe en tant qu'« avatar ». La création de ces univers repose sur un principe d'autonomie selon lequel les modèles numériques sont dotés de capteurs virtuels qui leur permettent de percevoir les autres modèles, possèdent des actionneurs pour agir sur les autres modèles, disposent de moyens de communication pour communiquer avec les autres modèles, et maîtrisent leurs coordinations perceptions-actions à travers un module de décision. Un « avatar » est alors un modèle numérique dont les capacités de décision sont déléguées à l'opérateur humain qu'il représente. Les modèles numériques, situés dans l'espace et dans le temps, évoluent ainsi de manière autonome au sein de l'univers virtuel, dont l'évolution d'ensemble est le résultat de leur évolution conjointe. L'homme, modèle parmi les modèles, est à la fois spectateur, acteur et créateur de l'univers virtuel auquel il appartient. Il est en relation avec son « avatar » par l'intermédiaire d'un langage et de périphériques sensorimoteurs variés qui rendent possible la triple médiation des sens, de l'action et du langage. Le rendu multisensoriel de son environnement est celui, réaliste, des images numériques de synthèse : 3D, sonores, tactiles, kinésthésiques, proprioceptives, animées en temps réel, et partagées sur les réseaux informatiques.

[1] Tisseau, J., Querrec, R., Reignier, P., and Chevaillier, P. Humans and autonomous agents interactions in a virtual environment for fire fighting training. Digital Interactive and Visual Art DIVA 8 (2001), 12-13. [ bib ]


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Coordinations d'ouvrages

[1] Moreau, G., and Tisseau, J. Outils et modèles informatiques des environnements virtuels, 3e ed., vol. 3 of Le Traité de la Réalité Virtuelle. Presses de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris, 2006. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
Le volume « outils et modèles informatiques des environnements virtuels » expose la conception et la réalisation de l'environnement virtuel. Celui-ci, généré informatiquement, doit être modélisé numériquement. Les modélisations des objets, des êtres animés, de leurs lois physiques et comportementales doivent être conçues sous la forte contrainte d'être exploitables en temps réel, imposée par l'objectif de l'instantanéité de la boucle « perception, cognition, action ». L'environnement virtuel à créer pouvant être représentatif de n'importe quel environnement réel, nous comprenons aisément que le défi informatique est immense : modéliser numériquement en temps réel toute entité et tout phénomène du monde réel. Si la modélisation visuelle d'objets rigides est bien développée, ce n'est pas encore le cas pour les modélisations non visuelles (mécaniques, acoustiques, etc.) pour des solides déformables. Concernant les modélisations des êtres vivants, bien des travaux sont à poursuivre pour les modélisations biomécaniques, comportementales et d'autonomie de ces entités. Il existe donc un grand nombre de modélisations, certaines étant du domaine de la « réalisation physique du monde virtuel », correspondant au niveau I2 sensori-motrices et d'autres étant du domaine de la « modélisation comportementale du monde virtuel », correspondant au niveau I2 cognitives du schéma de référence en réalité virtuelle. Le volume fera une présentation des techniques exploitables actuellement et des recherches futures en modélisation temps réel. Le volume abordera aussi l'évolution des outils logiciels, adaptés aux défis de modélisation de l'environnement virtuel, de l'acquisition des actions de l'utilisateur et des restitutions sensorielles à ce dernier. Le plan du volume est composé de trois parties principales : (1) Modèles pour les rendus sensori-moteurs, (2) Modèles pour les rendus comportementaux (3) Outils et environnements de développement.


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Chapitres d'ouvrages

[8] Tisseau, J., Parenthoën, M., and Harrouet, F. Autonomie des objets virtuels, vol. Réalité virtuelle of Technologies de l'information, Technologies logicielles Architectures des systèmes. Techniques de l'Ingénieur, 2007, ch. H 7 005, pp. 1-12. [ bib ]
Dans ce dossier, nous érigeons en principe l'autonomisation des modèles numériques qui composent un univers virtuel ; cette autonomisation contribue ainsi à peupler les environnements virtuels d'une vie artificielle qui renforce l'impression de réalité. La mise en oeuvre de ce principe d'autonomie (paragraphe 2) passe par une approche multi-agents participative (paragraphe 3). De telles simulations multi-agents participatives autorisent un nouveau type d'investigation : l'expérimentation in virtuo, qui ouvre de nouveaux champs d'exploration, d'investigation et de compréhension du réel. Cette expérimentation in virtuo vient compléter nos moyens d'investigation classiques que sont les expérimentations in vivo et in vitro, ou encore les calculs in silico.

[7] Tisseau, J., and Parenthoën, M. Modélisation énactive et autonomisation, vol. Intelligence de la complexité : épistémologie et pragmatique of Colloque de Cerisy. Editions de l'Aube, 2007, ch. I.6, pp. 149-174. [ bib | http ]
Les systèmes modélisés sont de plus en plus complexes, mais aujourd'hui encore, il n'existe pas de formalisme capable de rendre compte de cette complexité. Seule la réalité virtuelle permet de « vivre » cette complexité. il nous faudra donc approfondir les relations entre la réalité virtuelle et les théories de la complexité pour faire de la réalité virtuelle un outil d'investigation de la complexité, tel le « macroscope » que Joël de Rosnay imaginait dans les années 1970. Au terme de macroscope, nous préférons celui de « virtuoscope » qui rappelle que ces systèmes sont étudiés avant tout à travers les modèles que nous nous en faisons et que nous expérimentons au sein de nos laboratoires virtuels. Ce projet de virtuoscope doit permettre à terme de mettre à la disposition des scientifiques, toutes disciplines confondues, des méthodes et des outils leur permettant l'étude des systèmes complexes au sein de laboratoires virtuels mettant en oeuvre l'expérimentation « in virtuo » telle que la propose la réalité virtuelle

[6] Cani, M.-P., Neyret, F., Parenthoën, M., and Tisseau, J. Modèles pour les environnements naturels, 3e ed., vol. 3: « Outils et modèles informatiques des environnements virtuels » of Le Traité de la Réalité Virtuelle. Presses de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris, 2006, ch. 11, pp. 315-332. [ bib ]
Qui n'a pas rêvé de s'immerger dans un monde virtuel interactif qui reproduise la complexité et la beauté de nos environnements naturels ? Le problème est peut-être rendu encore plus crucial par la soif indéniable de l'Homme moderne à s'évader de son univers urbain et manufacturé. Ainsi, l'industrie du loisir numérique - animation 3D, jeux vidéo - est de plus en plus friande de techniques permettant la synthèse de scènes naturelles animées, calculées en des temps raisonnables, et si possibles interactives c'est-à-dire répondant en temps-réel aux actions de l'utilisateur. Un autre cadre d'application est celui des simulateurs : il peut s'agir de reproduire un univers naturel réaliste à explorer, par exemple, avec un simulateur de vol ; de simuler visuellement un risque naturel (une avalanche, une inondation) pour convaincre les décideurs ; ou encore de proposer un simulateur pédagogique permettant à l'utilisateur de s'entraîner à un certain type d'actions en environnement naturel pour lesquelles la simulation de ce dernier est indispensable (pensons par exemple à la navigation à la voile).

Ce chapitre met tout d'abord en évidence le verrou scientifique que constitue l'extrême complexité des scènes et des phénomènes à reproduire. Nous montrons en second lieu que l'emploi d'une méthodologie adaptée - basée sur la communication et le couplage d’une ensemble de sous-modèles de nature et d'échelle parfois très différentes - permet de lever en partie ces difficultés, en mariant efficacité des calculs et illusion du réel. Cette méthodologie est illustrée par une série d'études de cas, de la mer aux prairies agitées par le vent et des nuages aux avalanches. Nous concluons sur la nécessité de synthétiser ces environnements naturels, animées et interactifs, comme de véritables univers en trompe l'oeil, au sein des quels les éléments se créent, évoluent, ou disparaissent au fur et à mesure de notre exploration.

[5] Tisseau, J., Parenthoën, M., and Harrouet, F. Modèles pour l'autonomie, 3e ed., vol. 3: « Outils et modèles informatiques des environnements virtuels » of Le Traité de la Réalité Virtuelle. Presses de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris, 2006, ch. 9, pp. 241-272. [ bib ]

[4] Fuchs, P., Moreau, G., and Tisseau, J. Introduction à la réalité virtuelle, 3e ed., vol. 3: « Outils et modèles informatiques des environnements virtuels » of Le Traité de la Réalité Virtuelle. Presses de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris, 2006, ch. 1, pp. 3-32. [ bib ]

[3] Tisseau, J., and Harrouet, F. Autonomie des entités virtuelles, 2e ed., vol. 2 of Le Traité de la Réalité Virtuelle. Presses de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris, 2003, ch. 4. [ bib ]

[2] Fuchs, P., Arnaldi, B., and Tisseau, J. La réalité virtuelle et ses applications, 2e ed., vol. 1 of Le Traité de la Réalité Virtuelle. Presses de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris, 2003, ch. 1. [ bib ]

[1] Abgrall, J.-F., Ballet, P., Kerdélo, S., Nicolas, M., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. L'hématolologiste et la coagulation virtuelle, 1e ed., vol. 1 of Thromboses. Editions Margaux Orange, 2004, ch. 22, pp. 287-299. [ bib | http ]
Face à la complexité grandissante des modèles biologiques, les biologistes ont besoin de nouveaux outils de modélisation. L'avènement de l'ordinateur et de l'informatique introduit aujourd'hui de nouvelles possibilités d'expérimentations avec les simulations numériques et permet d'envisager un nouveau type d'investigation : l'expérimentation « in virtuo ». L'expression « in virtuo » (dans le virtuel) est ici construite par analogie avec les constructions latines « in vivo » (dans le vivant) et « in vitro » (dans le verre). Une expérimentation « in virtuo » est ainsi conduite dans un univers virtuel de modèles numériques.

Nous illustrerons cette nouvelle possibilité à l'aide d'exemples issus du domaine de la coagulation du sang. Nous avons créé un modèle multi-agents d'un vaisseau virtuel. Ce modèle prend en compte les principales étapes connues du phénomène de coagulation : 3 types de cellules et 32 types de protéines sont impliqués dans 41 interactions. La validation de ce modèle repose sur la similitude des courbes de génération de thrombine obtenues « in virtuo » et « in vitro », sur la cohérence avec les pathologies (diminution de thrombine générée dans l'hémophilie et augmentation dans la thrombophilie), sur la correction de l'hémophilie par le facteur VII activé, sur la correction de l'hypercoagulabilité par l'héparine et sur la simulation du temps de Quick.


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Brevets internationaux

[5] Le Gal, C., Béal, P.-A., Tisseau, J., and Charles, C. Simulating of the evolution of a mixed medium by asynchronous and chaotic processing, in particular for virtual test water tank. Patents WO 2009056691 (2009-05-07), FR2919940 (2009-05-07). cervVAL, 2009. [ bib ]

[4] Tisseau, J., Harrouet, F., Redou, P., and Kerdélo, S. Device for simulation of the real world by asynchronous and chaotic processing. Patents US2007156381 (2007-07-05), EP1706834 (2006-10-04), WO2005081141 (2005-09-01), CA2552821 (2005-09-01), FR2865297 (2005-07-22). ENIB, cervVAL, 2007. [ bib ]

[3] Parenthoën, M., Tisseau, J., and Jourdan, T. Device for simulating a medium evolution by asynchronous and chaotic processing in the presence of autonomous interacting entities and a multi-agent system. Patents EP1751682 (2007-02-14), WO2006003271 (2006-01-12), CA2568258 (2006-01-12), FR2871261 (2005-12-09). ENIB, cervVAL, 2007. [ bib ]

[2] Mollet, N., Cazeaux, E., Devillers, F., Maffre, E., Arnaldi, B., and Tisseau, J. Learning system for the exploitation, the use or the maintenance of a working framework in a virtual reality environment. Patent EP1605420 (2005-12-14). GIAT Ind SA, 2005. [ bib ]

[1] Arnaldi, B., Tisseau, J., Mollet, N., Devillers, F., Cazeaux, E., and Maffre, E. Method to model graphically, behaviourally and three-dimensionally at least two objects. Patents EP1548558 (2005-06-29), FR2863738 (2005-06-17). GIAT Ind SA, 2005. [ bib ]


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Brevets nationaux

[2] Mollet, N., Cazeaux, E., Devillers, F., Maffre, E., Arnaldi, B., and Tisseau, J. Méthode de scénarisation de session de formation. Patent FR2871597 (2005-12-16). GIAT Ind SA, 2005. [ bib ]

[1] Mollet, N., Cazeaux, E., Devillers, F., Maffre, E., Arnaldi, B., and Tisseau, J. Méthode pédagogique détectant l'intention de l'apprenant. Patent FR2871605 (2005-12-16). GIAT Ind SA, 2005. [ bib ]


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Conférences invitées

[15] Tisseau, J. Réalité virtuelle et complexité. In Ingénierie grands projets et systèmes complexes (Palais des congrès, Arcachon, France, june 28-29 2010). [ bib | .html ]

[14] Tisseau, J. « In virtuo » : du rêve à la virtualité. In Numériquement vôtre (Espace des sciences, Rennes, France, may 27 2009). [ bib | http ]

[13] Tisseau, J. Réalité virtuelle : vers une coopération réel-virtuel. In Forum des usages coopératifs (Brest, France, july 10 2008). [ bib | http ]

[12] Tisseau, J. Les apports de la réalité virtuelle. In Journée EuroLarge : la révolution numérique dans les métiers du nautisme (Lorient, France, may 15 2008). [ bib | http ]

[11] Tisseau, J. Réalité virtuelle et cycle de vie d'un produit. In Journées MEITO : Design et intégration des produits électroniques (Rennes, France, december 13 2007). [ bib | http ]

[10] Tisseau, J. Modéliser et simuler les phénomènes complexes par la réalité virtuelle. In Entretiens de l'INSEP : Modélisation et simulation informatique : les simulateurs comme outils d'entraînement et de formation professionnelle en sport de haut niveau ? (Paris, France, june 8-9 2006). [ bib ]

[9] Parenthoën, M., and Tisseau, J. Enactive modelling. In VC'05 : Virtual Concept (Biarritz, France, november 28-30 2005). [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This tutorial is about the modeling of natural phenomena for their participative simulation in a virtual reality system. It begins with an epistemological glance on the modeling of complex systems, which include a human being in the simulation loop, allowing experimentation of the models, throughout modeling, by their participative simulation. This approach places virtual reality as an interlink between humanities, natural sciences, exact sciences and engineering sciences. Enactive modeling is an example of such a constructive methodology for natural phenomena in virtual reality system, reconciling knowledge resulting from psychology, neurophysiology, physics and computing sciences. The method suggested - enactive modeling - is conceptualized, formalized, instrumented and illustrated by the case of a heterogeneous water plane of several square kilometres usable by sailors and oceanographers. This new constructive method for the modeling of complex systems involving multi-models and multi-scales interactions opens many perpectives.

[8] Tisseau, J. La modélisation énactive pour l'expérimentation in virtuo des systèmes complexes. In Journée MCX APC : De la complexité restreinte à la complexité généralisée (Paris, France, november 18 2005). [ bib ]

[7] Tisseau, J. Modélisation et simulation des systèmes complexes : application à la sécurité. In Les 16e journées DGA-SSI (Rennes, France, november 8-9 2005). [ bib ]

[6] Tisseau, J. La modélisation des systèmes complexes en réalité virtuelle. In Les 9e entretiens Science et Ethique (Brest, France, october 7-8 2005). [ bib ]

[5] Tisseau, J. Expérimentations in virtuo. In CARD'05: Congrès Annuel de Recherche Dermatologique (Brest, France, mai 27-28 2005). [ bib ]

[4] Tisseau, J. Réalité virtuelle : l'invention du réel. In VirtuReal 2003 (Saint Dié des Vosges, France, june 25-27 2003). [ bib ]

[3] Querrec, R., Chevaillier, P., and Tisseau, J. Virtual reality and multiagent systems for fire fighting training in virtual environment. In Workshop WRV 2002 (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, november 27-29 2002). [ bib ]

[2] De Loor, P., Favier, P.-A., and Tisseau, J. Programming autonomous entities with purposes and trends for virtual storytelling. In ICVR'01: International Conference of Virtual Storytelling (Avignon, France, september 27-28 2001). [ bib ]

[1] Reignier, P., Harrouet, F., and Tisseau, J. Interactive behavioural prototyping using virtual reality toolkit. In Summer School on Mobile Robotics (Zakopane, Poland, september 9-10 1999). [ bib ]


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Conférences internationales

[56] Rodin, V., Querrec, G., Ballet, P., Bataille, R., Desmeulles, G., Abgrall, J.-F., and Tisseau, J. Multi-Agents System to Model Cell Signalling by Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. Application to Computer Simulation of Multiple Myeloma. In IEEE BIBE'09: Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (Taichung, 2009), pp. 236-241. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
In order to simulate biological processes, we use multi-agents system. However, modelling cell behavior in systems biology is complex and may be based on intracellular biochemical pathway. So, we have developed in this study a Fuzzy Influence Graph to model MAPK pathway. A Fuzzy Influence Graph is also called Fuzzy Cognitive Map. This model can be integrated in agents representing cells. Results indicate that despite individual variations, the average behavior of MAPK pathway in a cells group is close to results obtained by ordinary differential equations. So, we have also modelled multiple myeloma cells signalling by using this approach.

[55] Bossard, C., Kermarrec, G., Bénard, R., De Loor, P., and Tisseau, J. Investigate naturalistic decision making of football players to design virtual environment. In NDM'09: Naturalistic Decision Making and Computers (London, 2009), pp. 185-186. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the thought processes of football decision-makers in a natural setting. Twelve French football players were observed during a specially designed study favourising counter-attacks. Players then watched a videotaped recording of their performance and provided the researcher with a verbal description of their cognitive activity during the situation. A content analysis conducted in context identified recurrent meanings produced by the experts. The data revealed that the players employed 16 schemata in the natural context of counter-attack. The main results highlight a number of aspects concerning experts' decision-making processes: experts' recognition of typical situations, the flexibility of schemata in decision-making, the evolution of the activity on the basis of contextual cues. The results provide a deeper understanding of complex football decision-making activity, and have been used for the development of the virtual environment CoPeFoot (Collective Perception Football).

[54] Simonnet, M., Vieilledent, S., Tisseau, J., and Jacobson, D. Can virtual reality provide digital maps to blind sailors? A case of study. In VRIC'09: Virtual Reality International Conference (Laval, 2009), pp. 167-169. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
It has been shown that blind people mainly encode space relative to their body. But mastering space consists in coordinating body and environmental reference. Tactile maps are powerful tools to help them to encode spatial information. However only didgital charts can be updated during voyage and they very often only rely on the visual modality. Virtual reality can present information using auditory and haptic interfaces. Previous work showed that virtual navigation facilitates acquiring spatial knowledge. This study aims at measuring if a blind sailor can learn a maritime environment with a virtual map as well a with a tactile map. The results tend to confirm this, and suggest pursuing investigations with non visual virtual navigation

[53] Bossard, C., Bénard, R., Kermarrec, G., and Tisseau, J. An exploratory evaluation of virtual football player's believability. In VRIC'09: Virtual Reality International Conference (Laval, 2009), pp. 171-172. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
Our research is conducted within the context of studies of participatory simulations. Within this perspective, we developed virtual environment for simulating play in football, in collaboration with computer scientists. The virtual environment is called CoPeFoot (Collective Perception in Football). In order to evaluate the believability of the virtual agents behaviors, we conducted an in virtuo experiment inspired by the Turing test, carried out on 48 subjects. Results suggest that novice subjects immersed in the virtual environments do not recognize the behavioral differences between autonomous virtual agents and avatars (agents controlled by humans). This study enables us to consider the potential applications of CoPeFoot both as a research tool and as a tool for assisting in training methods.

[52] Trinh, T.-H., Buche, C., and Tisseau, J. Modeling of errors realized by a learner in virtual environment for training. In ICVL'08 : International Conference on Virtual Learning (Constanta, 2008), pp. 71-80. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This study focuses on the notion of erroneous actions realized by human learners in Virtual Environments for Training. Our principal objective is to develop an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) suggesting pedagogical assistances to the teacher. For that, the ITS must obviously detect and classify erroneous actions produced by learners during their realization of procedural and collaborative work. Further, in order to better support human teacher and facilitate his comprehension, it is necessary to show the teacher why learner made an error. Addressing this issue, we firstly model the Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM). Then, we integrate the retrospective analysis mechanism of CREAM into our existing ITS, thus enable the system to indicate the path of probable cause-effect explaining reasons why errors have occurred.

[51] De Loor, P., Manac'h, K., Fronville, A., and Tisseau, J. Requirement for an enactive machine: ontogenesis, interaction and human in the loop. In ENACTIVE'08 : International Conference on Enactive Interfaces (Pise, 2008), pp. 136-141. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This article deals with the links between the enaction paradigm and artificial intelligence. Enaction is considered as a base for some artificial life and robotic approaches. We explain some technical and conceptual problems relative to the development of such approaches: Lack of complex ontogenetic mechanisms, and of understanding the notion of sense-making in an interactive artificial intelligence context. Then, we propose that 1) the growing complexity of the ontogenetic mechanisms to be activated can be compensated by an interactive guidance system emanating from the environment. 2) The integration of human into this environment leads to construct relevant meaning in terms of participative artificial intelligence. This raises a number of questions with regards to setting up an enactive interaction. The phenomenology of interactions and the use of minimal enactive interfaces in setting up experiments will deal with the problem of artificial intelligence in a variety of enaction-based ways.

[50] Gerbaud, S., Mollet, N., Ganier, F., Arnaldi, B., and Tisseau, J. GVT: a platform to create virtual environments for procedural training. In IEEE VR'08 : Virtual Reality (Reno, 2008), pp. 225-232. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
The use of Virtual Environments for Training is strongly stimulated by important needs for training on sensitive equipments. Yet, developing such an application is often done without reusing existing components, which requires a huge amount of time. We present in this paper a full authoring platform to facilitate the development of both new virtual environments and pedagogical information for procedural training. This platform, named GVT (Generic Virtual Training) relies on innovative models and provides authoring tools which allow capitalizing on the developments realized. We present a generic model named STORM, used to describe reusable behaviors for 3D objects and reusable interactions between those objects. We also present a scenario language named LORA which allows non computer scientists to author various and complex sequences of tasks in a virtual scene. Based on those models, as an industrial validation with Nexter-Group, more than fifty operational scenarios of maintenance training on military equipments have been realized so far. We have also set up an assessment campaign, and we will expose in this paper the first results which show that GVT enables trainees to learn procedures efficiently. The platform keeps on evolving and training on collaborative procedures will soon be available.

[49] Le Gal, C., Olagnon, M., Parenthoën, M., Béal, P.-A., and Tisseau, J. Comparison of sea state statistics between a phenomenological model and field data. In OCEANS'07 (Aberdeen, 2007), pp. 1-6. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This paper describes IPAS (Interactive Phenomenological Animation of the Sea), a method for numerical interactive phenomenological animation of the sea, and it aims to validate this method by confrontation with field data. As IPAS is a phenomenological animation, it does not involve computation of hydrodynamic equations on a mesh or a grid of points. Instead, autonomous agents, modeling oceanographic phenomenons, are combined and animated using enaction­based multi­agents simulation. A large number of such simulations has been carried out, and the resulting statistics are compared to acommonly used theoretical model, showing the ability of IPAS to represent actual sea state characteristics.

[48] Redou, P., Desmeulles, G., Abgrall, J.-F., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. Formal validation of asynchronous interaction-agents algorithms for reaction-diffusion problems. In PADS'07 : Principles of Advanced and Distributed Simulation (San Diego, 2007), pp. 1-9. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
In the context of biological complex systems multi-agent simulation, we present an interaction-agent model for reaction-diffusion problems that enables interaction with the simulation during the execution, and we establish a mathematical validation for our model. We use two types of interaction-agents: on one hand, in a chemical reactor with no spatial dimension -e.g. a cell-, a reaction-agent represents an autonomous chemical reaction between several reactants, and modifies the concentration of reaction products. On the other hand, we use interface-agents in order to take into account the spatial dimension that appears with diffusion : interface-agents achieve the matching transfer of reactants between cells. This approach, where the simulation engine makes agents intervene in a chaotic and asynchronous way, is an alternative to the classical model -which is not relevant when the limits conditions are frequently modified- based on partial derivative equations. We enounciate convergence results for our interaction-agent methods, and illustrate our model with an example about coagulation inside a blood vessel.

[47] Gaubert, L., Redou, P., and Tisseau, J. Frequency locking in tissular coupling. Part 2: infinite compact connected population. In EPNACS'07 : Emergent Properties in Natural and Artificial Complex Systems (Dresden, 2007), pp. 1-8. [ bib | .html | .pdf ]
In an accompanying paper, we addressed the issue of synchronization under the framework of tissular coupling and in the case of a finite population. This issue is one of the main dynamical emergent property of complex systems. Indeed, this phenomenon actually occurs in natural systems at many scales (from cell to whole ecological systems). Many examples can be found in various fields of experimentation and theoretical research. It is in particular a key concept in the field of non- linear systems' dynamics, especially through the notion of chaotic systems' synchronization. This wide source of examples explain why this field of research is highly interdisciplinary, from pure theory to concrete applications and experimentations. The classical concept of synchronization is related to the locking of the basic frequencies and instantaneous phases of regular oscillations. Those issues are usually addressed by studying specific coupled systems, using classical tools of the field. Convinced that synchronization phenomenon is completely natural in a large variety of coupled dynamical systems, we proposed in a preceding paper a new approach to the subject: we built a general model of coupled systems, called « tissular coupling ». Within natural assumptions on interactions of those coupled systems, we proved that, for a wide class of autonomous differential systems, as soon as a finite population exhibits oscillating behaviors, their frequencies are mutually locked to a single value. This paper presents a new piece of answer to those synchronization issues as it addresses the issue of an infinite compact connected population. Even if the general questions addressed in this paper are similar to those addressed in the later one, this study is done with completely different techniques than in the finite situation and the results achieved require assumptions that are specific to the continuous situation.

This paper stresses the fact that synchronization is a very natural phenomenon that can be find in many kind of coupled dynamical systems. In the first section, we recall some parts of the framework already introduced and some mathematical tools specific to our problem. Then we address a sub problem which deals with diffuse coupling, concluding with a general result on synchronization. Finally, we go back to the general case of a uniformly linear tissular coupling and show how those dynamical systems, and based on which assumptions, exhibits the frequencies locking property.

[46] Gaubert, L., Redou, P., and Tisseau, J. Frequency locking in tissular coupling. Part 1: finite population. In EPNACS'07 : Emergent Properties in Natural and Artificial Complex Systems (Dresden, 2007), pp. 1-12. [ bib | .html | .pdf ]
Synchronization is an extremely important and interesting emergent property of complex systems. The first example found in literature goes back to the 17th century with Christiaan Huygens works. This kind of emergent behavior can be found in artificial systems as well as in natural ones and at many scales (from cell to whole ecological systems). Biology abounds of peri- odic and synchronized phenomena and the works of Ilya Prigogine showed that such behaviors arise within specific conditions: a dissipative structure gener- ally associated to a non-linear dynamic. Biological systems are open, they evolve far from thermodynamic equilibrium and are subject to numerous reg- ulating processes, leading to highly non-linear dynamics. Therefore periodic behaviors appear (with or without synchronization) at any scale. More generally, life itself is governed by circadian rhythms. Those phenomena are as much attractive as they are often spectacular: from cicada populations that appear spontaneously every ten or thirteen years or networks of heart cells that beat together to huge swarms in which fireflies, gathered in a same tree, flash simultaneously. Furthermore, beyond biology one can find a wide source of examples in completely different fields of science (e.g. in behav- ioral psychology with the example of synchronizing applause). For much more artificial and/or theoretical examples, one can consider the whole field of research that studies the coupling of smooth dynamical systems. Nowa- days, it is one of the most important subject related to non-linear systems' dynamics, especially through the notion of chaotic systems' synchronization. This wide source of examples leads the field of research to be highly interdisciplinary, from pure theory to concrete applications and experimen- tations. The classical concept of synchronization is related to the locking of the basic frequencies and instantaneous phases of regular oscillations. Those questions are usually addressed by studying specific kinds of coupled discrete or differential systems, using classical tools of the field. Convinced that synchronization phenomenon is completely natural in a large variety of coupled dynamical systems, we propose a new approach of the subject: firstly, we ask the question of synchronization differently than the usual way. Rather than trying to prove that synchronization actually takes place, we search conditions under which frequencies are locked as soon as the whole system oscillate. Secondly we enlarge the scope of handled models, by building a general framework for coupled systems called « tissular coupling ». This framework is inspired by biological observations at cell's scale, but relevant at any scale of modeling. Under some general assumptions on the kind of interactions that constitute the coupling of the systems, we prove that for a wide class of tissular coupling systems, frequencies are mutually locked to a single value as soon as the whole population is oscillating.

This paper exhibits our model of tissular coupling and the frequency locking in the case of a finite number of coupled systems. In the first section we present some mathematical tools and the background we have used in order to study synchronization issue (the results exposed at the end of this paper is only a part of what we have fulfilled, and surely a really small part of what can be done using tissular coupling, this is why we state this framework in its general form). Then, we describe dynamical objects on which we focus, namely the tissular coupling and periodical motions of a population. In the second section we expose a useful way to reduce the problem to a structural one, with no more reference to the dynamics of the coupled systems. In the final section we exhibit some natural conditions under which we are able to prove the main result of this paper, a case of synchronization, in terms of frequencies locking. In a second paper [3] we expose the case of an infinite compact and connected population, which is processed with different mathematical tools.

[45] Simonnet, M., Vieilledent, S., Guinard, J.-Y., and Tisseau, J. Can haptic maps contribute to spatial knowledge of blind sailors ? In ENACTIVE'07 : International Conference on Enactive Interfaces (Grenoble, 2007), pp. 259-262. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
In this preliminary study, we compared the capability of a blind sailor to access geographical information needed to navigate via an haptic device and via a tactile map. We assessed this spatial knowledge in an egocentered, an allocentered and a combined frame of reference. The subject first explored haptic or tactile maps before answering a series of questions in order to locate 6 salient objects within each map. Then, we used the triangulation technique to obtain easily scoreable physical representations of these cognitive locations. Basically, our results showed no difference between haptic and tactile condition even if slight differences were observed between the frames of reference. We suggest that the subject took great advantage of the haptic map because its sequential and dynamic features implied to focus on learning and memorizing the movement patterns rather than directly touching the global layout with reduced movements as it is the case when using a tactile map.

[44] Parenthoën, M., and Tisseau, J. Enactic applied to sea state simulation. In ENACTIVE'06 : International Conference on Enactive Interfaces (Montpellier, 2006), pp. 199-200. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
For modelling complex systems, we propose to use the enaction concept as a principle to build autonomized models of phenomena and to use the computer as a technological support to experiment these models in a virtual reality system. Phenomena are chosen by those who will use the virtual reality system, according to their praxis in the real world. The modelled phenomena are tried out by the modeller in enaction through the virtual reality system. As we don't have any global model for complex systems and to keep an eye to autonomy and interaction aspects of enaction, phenomena are modelled as autonomous entities and interactions between models goes though a medium created and made to evolve by mere models activities. We qualify such model by enactic, as a model is poorly enactive in itself. More precisely, an enactic model is composed by a triplet (prediction, action, reorganisation) of active objects (parameters, functions and activities) and an inner clock scheduling activities by chaotic asynchronous iterations Enactic is a new constructive method for modelling complex systems involving multi-models and multi-scales interactions. Enactic might contain the premises of a new methodology for the study and the comprehension of complex systems. Enactic was applied to give rise to the sea state model IPAS, within the framework of useful simulations for sailors and oceanographers. If it remains to prove physical validity of models generated according to this method, one should also study how these sort of participative simulation make easier the transfer from enaction to virtual experiments of artificial enaction.

[43] Bénard, R., De Loor, P., and Tisseau, J. Understanding dynamic situations through context explanation. In IEEE ICALT'06 : International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (Kerkrade, 2006), pp. 1044-1046. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This article presents advantages of using context to set up a pedagogical assistance for recognition of collectives situations in Virtual Environment for Training (VET). We are focusing on generation of explanations to the learner. Two assistances types have been envisaged thanks to context using, the first one consists in guiding the learner before action and the second can be used during action. Those assistances have been set up thanks to contextual graph and consists of animations in the virtual environment.

[42] Simonnet, M., Guinard, J.-Y., and Tisseau, J. Preliminary work for vocal and haptic navigation software for blind sailors. In ICDVRAT'06 : International Conference Series On Disability, Virtual Reality And Associated Technologies (Esbjerg, 2006), pp. 255-262. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This study aims at the conception of haptic and vocal navigation software that permits blind sailors to create and simulate ship itineraries. This question implies a problematic about the haptic strategies used by blind people in order to build their space representation when using maps. According to current theories, people without vision are able to construct cognitive maps of their environment but the lack of sight tends to lead them to build egocentric and sequential mental pictures of space. Nevertheless, exocentric and unified representations are more efficient (Piaget et al, 1948). Can blind people be helped to construct more effective spatial pictures? Some previous works have shown that strategies are the most important factors in spatial performance in large-scale space (Tellevik, 1992) (Hill et al, 1993) (Thinus-Blanc et al, 1997). In order to encode space in an efficient way, we made our subject use the cardinal points reference in small-scale space. During our case study, a compass establishes a frame of external cues. In this respect, we support the assumption that training based on systematic exocentric reference helps blind subjects to build unified space. At the same time, this training has led the blind sailor to change his haptic strategies in order to explore tactile maps and perform better. This seems to modify his processing of space representation. Eventually, we would like to study the transfer between map representation and environment mobility. Our final point is about using strategy based on cardinal points and haptic virtual reality technologies in order to help the blind improve their spatial cognition.

[41] Bossard, C., Bénard, R., and Tisseau, J. Understanding dynamic and collaborative situation : a context based approach. In CATE'06 : Computers and Advanced Technology in Education (Lima, 2006), pp. 255-260. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This article presents a contextual approach to build a Virtual Environment for Training (VET) to develop decision making skills. After a characterization of dynamic and collaborative situations and our theoretical learning perspective, we focus on advantages of using context to set up a pedagogical assistance. Two assistances types have been envisaged thanks to context using, the first one is a direct assistance and the second allows to replay the simulation. We are detailing the direct one which consists in guiding the learner before and during action. Those assistances have been set up thanks to contextual graph and consists of animations in the virtual environment.

[40] Herviou, D., Maisel, E., and Tisseau, J. Traffic road simulator design. In DSC'06 Asia-Pacific : Driving Simulation Conference (Tsukuba, 2006). [ bib ]

[39] Simonnet, M., Guinard, J.-Y., and Tisseau, J. Auditory and tactile modalities for a non visual representation : a blind sailing application. In VC'05 : Virtual Concept (Biarritz, 2005), pp. 1-9. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This research has consisted in the elaboration of a spatial strategy for blind sailors. With auditory information, they can locate the sound buoys along the track. Vocal watches allow time measurement during the race. After some experiments that have isolated these different tools, the conclusion that tactile maps allow stocking accurate tactile pictured representation of the race has been drawn. However, these do not allow any adjustment as to the boat position during action. Even with a limited precision, the auditory feed back makes turning around the buoys along the track possible for blind people. Because of a space time relation, they can transform a time value into a distance value on the map. This strategy implicates an important cognitive load. That is why we would like to use virtual reality techniques to up-to-date haptic pieces of information about the position of the boat on a virtual map during sailing.

[38] Cazeaux, E., Devillers, F., Saint-Romas, C., Arnaldi, B., Maffre, E., Mollet, N., and Tisseau, J. Giat Virtual Training : formation à la maintenance. In Laval Virtual 2005 (Laval, 2005). [ bib | .pdf ]

[37] Parenthoën, M., Jourdan, T., and Tisseau, J. Ipas: Interactive phenomenological animation of the sea. In ISOPE'04 : International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (Toulon, 2004), pp. 125-132. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
No current real time animation model of the sea simultaneously holds account of a heterogeneous water plane up to 10 km2 with the local effects of breakings, winds, currents and shallow waters on wave groups, and this on all the wavelength scales, phenomena however essential so that maritime simulation could have meaning for sailors and remains physically believable for the eyes of oceanographers. We propose a new approach for the real time simulation of the sea: instead of numerically solving Navier-Stokes equations on a grid of points, we use oceanographical results both from theory and experiments for modeling autonomous entities, interacting in a multi agent system without any predefined grid. Our model ipas (Interactive Phenomenological Animation of the Sea) includes entities such as wave groups, active and passive breakings, local winds, shallow waters and currents. Some of the whole set of interactions are modeled.

[36] Querrec, G., Rodin, V., Abgrall, J.-F., Kerdélo, S., and Tisseau, J. Use of multiagents system for simulation in systems biology. In IASTED BIOMED'03 : International Conference on Biomedical. Engineering (Salzburg, 2003), pp. 48-53. [ bib | .pdf ]
Since emergence of molecular biology, one has improved knowledge about intracellular network controlling living cell. In parallel, advances in mathematic and computer science allow to simulate such complex phenomena. Moreover, most methods need a global resolution of the system which makes it difficult to be created and modified. We propose, in this study, a distributed approach by multiagent system, to simulate MAPK pathway. Moreover, we are able to integrate this model in an agent-cell to implement his behavior. We believe that multiagent systems are good candidate for systems biologiy simulation. We give in this study an example of « in virtuo » simulation, i.e. model perturbation during its execution.

[35] Querrec, G., Rodin, V., Abgrall, J.-F., Kerdélo, S., and Tisseau, J. Uses of multiagents systems for simulation of MAPK pathway. In IEEE BIBE'03 : Symposium on Bioinformatics and BioEngineering (Bethesda, 2003), pp. 421-425. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
Since emergence of molecular biology, one has improved knowledge about intracellular network controlling cell behavior. In parallel, advances in mathematic and computer science allow to simulate such complex phenomena. Moreover, most methods need a global resolution of the system which makes it difficult to be created and modified. We proposed, in this study, a distributed approach by multi-agent system (MAS), to simulate MAPK pathway. Our results show that such simulation is possible and allows « in virtuo » experimentation, i.e. model perturbation during its execution.

[34] Popovici, M., Morvan, S., Maisel, E., and Tisseau, J. Interactive distributed guided tours of historical sites. In IEEE Cyberworlds'03 : International Conference on Cyberworlds (Singapore, 2003), pp. 453-457. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
In this paper we propose a new metaphor of information retrieving, usable in heritage management and publishing. Based on the net, the user is able to participate in virtual guided tours, sessions of conferences-like. A human expert will be the guide for all the connected users. He will use different media (sound/video) to communicate; the members of the guided group will communicate between them through chat sessions. Each virtual tourist will be autonomous in its 3D world movements but he will receive audio/video information or other multimedia documents or 3D objects, eventually autonomous entities placed in its 3D virtual universe, from its guide. The guide is able to suggest to its group of tourists some interesting viewpoints during the tour. More, he is able to augment the database, particularly the associated behaviours to the entities. It is enough to analyse the entities in a scene and to attach them some new behaviours. For example, he can place in the environment some virtual guides, and the users will interact with them. These virtual guides recognise some keywords or intentions; i.e. if a tourist spends some time near a specific place, the virtual guide will initiate a dialog upon the place's history. The user is able to cancel the dialog with a virtual guide and return to its group. The application is based on the ARéViJava (Atelier de Réalite Virtuelle) platform, developed in our laboratory.

[33] Gerval, J.-P., Popovici, M., and Tisseau, J. Educative distributed virtual environments for children. In IEEE Cyberworlds'03 : International Conference on Cyberworlds (Singapore, 2003), pp. 382-387. [ bib | .pdf ]
This paper presents a distributed virtual reality environment for children. This virtual environment supports cooperation among members of a dispersed team engaged in a concurrent context. The virtual environment maintains a shared information space described in a standard Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) format. Users are allowed to interact and to give decisions using cooperative mechanisms. A user-friendly interface enables teachers to create their own stories that fit with children pedagogical requirements and generates new virtual environments according to teacher's specifications. The implementation is based on DeepMatrix as environment server, VRML and Java as languages and Cortona VRML plug-in from ParallelGraphics. It is actually running on the Internet: http://www.enib.fr/eve .

[32] Gerval, J.-P., Popovici, M., and Tisseau, J. Virtual stories authoring tools for pedagogical purposes. In CATE'03 : Computers and Advanced Technology in Education (Rhodes, 2003), pp. 642-646. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This paper sets out two developments that were achieved within the framework of a distributed virtual reality environment for children. This virtual environment supports cooperation among members of a dispersed team engaged in a concurrent context. The first development is a user-friendly interface, which enables teachers to fit with children pedagogical requirements and generates new virtual environments according to teacher's specifications. The second tool aims at a better children cooperation by means of avatar's behaviours. These tools have been implemented with Java and VRML languages. The distribution of virtual worlds is obtained using DeepMatrix as an environment server.

[31] Buche, C., Parenthoën, M., and Tisseau, J. Learning by imitation of behaviors for autonomous agents. In GAME-ON'02 : International Conference on Intelligent Games and Simulation (London, 2002), pp. 89-93. [ bib | .html | .pdf ]
The goal of this work is to provide more autonomy for virtual actors by endowing them with a learning ability by imitation. While acting in his virtual world, our virtual actor uses prototypic behaviors defined by Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to simulate other actors' behavior in his imaginary world. This simulation allows him to carry out predictions and choices of strategies. We propose a method allowing virtual actor to adapt a prototypic behavior of FCMs to a model by simple observation. Prototype adapts itself to its model and simulation of other actors' behavior in the imaginary world comes closer to reality. This method uses meta-knowledge about learning allowing to preserve a « personality » and emotions.

[30] Gerval, J.-P., Popovici, M., Ramdani, M., Boskoff, V., and Tisseau, J. Virtual environments for children. In CATE'02 : Computers and Advanced Technology in Education (Cancun, 2002), pp. 416-420. [ bib | http ]
This paper presents a distributed virtual reality environment for children. This virtual environment supports cooperation among members of a dispersed team engaged in a concurrent context. The virtual environment maintains a shared information space described in a standard Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) format. Users are allowed to interact and to give decisions using cooperative mechanisms. The implementation is based on DeepMatrix as environment server, VRML and Java as languages and Cortona VRML plug-in from ParallelGraphics. It is actually running on the Internet: http://www.enib.fr/eve .

[29] Kerdélo, S., Abgrall, J.-F., Parenthoën, M., and Tisseau, J. Multiagent systems : a useful tool for the modelization and simulation of the blood coagulation cascade. In AAMAS'02 : International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (Bologna, 2002), pp. 33-36. [ bib | http ]

[28] Kerdélo, S., Abgrall, J.-F., Parenthoën, M., and Tisseau, J. In vitro blood coagulation versus in silico blood coagulation : an individual-centered approach. In IEEE SMC'02 : International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (Hammamet, 2002), p. MA1B3. [ bib ]

[27] Parenthoën, M., Tisseau, J., and Morineau, T. Believable decision for virtual actors. In IEEE SMC'02 : International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (Hammamet, 2002), vol. 3, p. MP2R3. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This study lies in the context of cognitive ergonomy and virtual engineering. We propose to model and implement the behaviour of autonomous virtual agents, using ideas from psychology (fuzzy cognitive maps, affordances) and neurophysiology (active perception). We describe the basis for a behavioral model imitating human beings' perceptive operation. The psychological notion of « affordance » will help us in the construction of cognitive maps for virtual actor's behaviour specification. Sensus Alain Berthoz, neurophysiologist, perception is not only an interpretation of sensorial messages: it is also an internal simulation of the action and an anticipation of the consequences of this simulated action. Following neurophysiological experiments on hippocampus in which were observed oscillations permitting prediction of trajectories, our virtual actor simulates its own behaviour in an imaginary space. This simulation in the simulation allows him to predict the consequences of actions. The expected benefit from our model consists in elaborating a believable virtual helmsman within the framework of a virtual sailing ship. We have implemented such a virtual actor in the multi-agent environment oRis.

[26] Parenthoën, M., Buche, C., and Tisseau, J. Action learning for autonomous virtual actors. In ISRA'02 : International Symposium on Robotics and Automation (Toluca, 2002), pp. 549-554. [ bib | .pdf ]
The goal of our work is to model believable virtual actors. Within the framework of learning by imitation, the virtual actor must be able to modify its prototypic behavior for miming in its imaginary world the observed behavior of a model which can be another virtual actor or an avatar controlled by a human operator. Each virtual actor has sensors for perceiving and effectors for acting and also a library of prototypic behaviors specified by FCMs for simulating it-self and others in its imaginary space. FCMs can give true perception and emotion. We propose a FCM-learning algorithm using meta-knowledge about learning in order to imitate a given behavior in real-time. The virtual actor autonomously selects training periods. This selection is inspired by neurophysiological experiments about active perception and hippocampus. The implementations undertaken in the multi-agent environment oRis are related to a sheepdog gathering sheep and to the adaptation of a virtual sailor to a given sailing ship.

[25] Parenthoën, M., Tisseau, J., and Morineau, T. Autonomy and proactive perception for virtual actors. In SCI'02 : Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (Orlando, 2002), vol. 13, pp. 359-364. [ bib | .pdf ]
This study lies in the context of virtual engineering and human information systems. We propose to model and implement the behaviour of believable virtual agents, using ideas from psychology (cognitive maps, affordances) and neurophysiology (active perception, movement prediction). Virtual worlds are peopled with autonomous entities improvising in free interaction. Autonomization of a model consists in giving to it a sensorimotor interface and also a decision module so that it could adapt its reactions to inner and extern stimuli. We propose in this article the basis for a behavioral model imitating human beings' perceptive operation. The psychological notion of « affordance » will help us in the construction of fuzzy cognitive maps for believable virtual human behaviour specification. Sensus Alain Berthoz, neurophysiologist, perception is not only an interpretation of sensorial messages: it is also an internal simulation of the action and an anticipation of the consequences of this simulated action. Following neurophysiological experiments on hippocampus in which were observed oscillations permitting prediction of trajectories, our virtual actor uses fuzzy cognitive maps in an imaginary space and simulate a behaviour. This simulation in the simulation allows him to predict the consequences of actions. The expected benefit from our affordance-based and proactive model consists in elaborating a believable virtual helmsman within the framework of a virtual sailing ship. We have implemented such a virtual actor in the multi-agent environment oRis.

[24] Parenthoën, M., Reignier, P., and Tisseau, J. Put fuzzy cognitive maps to work in virtual worlds. In Fuzz-IEEE'01: International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (Melbourne, 2001), p. P038. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This article lies within the interactive virtual stories telling scope and proposes the use of fuzzy cognitive maps as a tool to model emotional behavior of virtual actors improvising in free interaction within the framework of a « nouvelle vague » scenario, as could Godard do. We show how fuzzy cognitive maps can be delocalized on each agent level to model autonomous agents within a virtual world. We describe the implementation carried out, starting from work in cognitive psychology and illustrate it by an improvisation between a shepherd, a dog and virtual sheep.

[23] Parenthoën, M., Tisseau, J., Reignier, P., and Dory, F. Agent's perception and charactors in virtual worlds. In VRIC'01: Virtual Reality International Conference (Laval, 2001), pp. 11-18. [ bib | .pdf ]
This article lies within the interactive virtual stories telling scope and proposes the fuzzy cognitive use maps as a tool to model emotional behaviour of virtual actors improvising in free interaction within the framework of a « nouvelle vague » scenario, as could Godard do. We describe the implementation carried out, starting from work in cognitive psychology and let us illustrate it by an improvisation between a shepherd, a dog and virtual sheep.

[22] Ballet, P., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. Immune mechanisms to regulate multiagent systems. In GECCO'00: Genetic and Evolutionary Computation COnference (Las Vegas, 2000), pp. 33-35. [ bib | .pdf ]
We present in this paper the use of immune mechanisms for the regulation of reactive multi-agents systems (MAS). More precisely, the aim of our work is to determine how computer scientists can take benefit from immune phenomenon to auto-regulate agent populations. This regulation can be made while integrating cell and molecule behaviors into agent's behaviors. Let us quote for example the mitosis, apoptosis or differenciation that are essential mechanisms during an immune response. The work to do or the problem to be solved are seen as foreign substances, that is antigenic bodies. The agents represent immuno-qualified cells having for goal the antigen inhibition. This process must be efficient, that means it must finish the work and just the work to do. Each agent inherit from one or several cell behaviors. Those behaviors are extracted from immune cells which have well defined roles. The first consists in detecting the antigen (the work to do), the second in giving alarm on a large scale, the third in increasing the capacity and the precision of the response and the fourth in eliminating the antigen. Our agents use these roles to mime an immune response. Hereafter we explain, in three criteria, the reasons of the immune response choice for MAS. 1)The immune system is compound with autonomous entities, able to cooperate, having behaviors, receptors and means of action. Therefore, a cell is very close to the agent concept. 2)The immune system is able to divide « self » and « non-self ». Like this, it can detect the work to do among 1020 different patterns. Thus, this system is flexible and adaptative, what gets an unquestionable advantage in environments with strong variability (like for aerial images). This number of possible shapes is very important, but it can be reduce for the need of simulation 3)The human immune system is quasi-optimal in the power of the answer to eliminate the antigen, which would allow us a quasi-optimal use of the computer resources during multi-agents processes. The regulation of multi-agents system thanks to immunological principles is few used today. We will begin with the study of the immune concepts we use as metaphors for the regulation of the agent populations. Then, we show two examples illustrating the implementation of the immune concepts. They are dedicated to the image processing coded in levels of gray. Finally, we conclude on the interests of this immune approach for the design of MAS.

[21] Ballet, P., Abgrall, J.-F., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. Simulation of thrombin generation during plasmatic coagulation and primary hemostasis. In IEEE SMC'00: International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (Nashville, 2000), pp. 131-136. [ bib | .pdf ]
This paper describes a simulation of the platelet agglutination into a damaged vein. This agglutination, called plasmatic coagulation, appears into the human body and its malfunction involves dramatic disease like thromboses or hemophilia. We designed an in-machina experimentation that is very difficult to do in-vitro. The first aim of this simulation is to verify one of the biological models of plasmatic coagulation and primary hemostasis. The second one is to test different ways to regulate the thrombin production. Then, we simulate a like haemophilia disease and one of its possible treatment.

[20] Harrouet, F., Reignier, P., and Tisseau, J. Multiagent systems and virtual reality for interactive prototyping. In IIIS ISAS'99: Conference on Information Systems Analysis and Synthesis (Orlando, 1999), vol. 3, pp. 50-57. [ bib | .pdf ]
This paper introduces a Virtual Reality platform based on a dynamic multi-agent programming language. These tools have been designed to show that simulating a Multi- Agent System in a virtual environment with dynamic properties can be used for Interactive Prototyping. This kind of prototyping has to be considered when the designed system cannot be described as a whole but as a set of autonous components with many interactions. Due to the fact that these interactions are very complex to model before simulating the system, we propose to let the designer enter inside the system and dynamically build, tune and mend the model. After making out a list of requirements to achieve this goal, we present our tool. Then, an example shows, through a very simple application, what an Interactive Prototyping session looks like.

[19] Ballet, P., Pers, J.-O., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. A multi-agent system to simulate an apoptosis model of b-cd5 cells. In IEEE SMC'98: International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (San Diego, 1998), pp. 3799-3803. [ bib | .pdf ]
Simulations of immune mechanisms become more and more numerous and accurate. The aim of such simulations is to reproduce in-machina, in-vitro and in-vivo experimentation. Then, it is possible to test the cell models and the consequences of their interactions. Thus, comparing the simulation results with the experimaentation results experiences the validity of the model. A distributed and cooperative system can advantageously be modeled by a multiagent system. Like this, the abstraction needed to model these phenomena is reduced. The immune system is included into highly cooperative and distributed systems. Moreover, it is quite easy to add or remove entities in the model and to improve their behaviors. In this paper, we present a multiagent system that reproduces in-machina, a set of in-vitro experimentation 011the apoptosis phenomena.

[18] Ballet, P., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. A multi-agent system to model and simulate in vitro experimentations. In IIIS ISAS'98: International Conference on Information Systems, Analysis and Synthesis (Orlando, 1998), vol. 2, pp. 1-7. [ bib | .pdf ]
The models of immune mechanisms which can besimulated on computers are numerous. They can be based on a mathematical approach and mainly on differential equations. For this global approach, the problem is to determine the influence of a cell population on an other cell population. This approach is particularly well adapted to the in-vivo phenomena simulation. In this case, the number of cells taken into account is very important (n > 1012). Another model consists in the local description of a cell's behavior, and in the description of its receptors. The simulation manages to determine interactions between the cells. Therefore, global phenomena are seen as the emergence of all the individual interactions. This last approach started in the early nineties with the work of Forrest on the receptor description and Seiden & Celada on the humoral response and thymus activity. The main advantages of such an approach are the modularity and its incremental aspect. The modularity allows a quite simple addition or removal of agents. The incremental aspect is the ability to easily improve the cell-agent model. That is the reason why the studies have been quickly extended by Smith on vaccine efficacy, by Seaden's team on rheumatoid factors and Ballet on humoral response against HIV virus. By now, these models have no geometrical constraints. Therefore, we have decided to develop a multiagent system doted whith geometrical constraints. Thus, we are able to simulate in-vitro experimentations into which the geometrical aspect is important. Thanks to the simple geometrical restraints, this study demonstrates that it is possible to simulate several in-vitro experimentations. We present in this paper our simulator and three in-machina experimentations. each of them are compared whith the real in-vitro tests.

[17] Chevaillier, P., Tisseau, J., Harrouet, F., and Querrec, R. Prototyping manufacturing systems. contribution of virtual reality, agent systems and synchronous interpreted petri nets. In INCOM'98: Symposium on Information Control in Manufacturing (Nancy, 1998), pp. 249-254. [ bib | .ps ]
The necessity of low-cost and rapid prototyping tools is often arisen in the field of manufactoring system design. This work showed that virtual reality, combined with multi-agent systems was a very efficient method to perform such a prototype. Virtual reality offered an easy to understand representation of the future system and a powerful reactivity from end-users. Because Agent paradigm enforced local point of view, modularity and re-usability could be achieved. Applied on the KorSo case study, this method led to a fully distributed architecture without any centralized controller. Agent-orientness was also a very structuring approach, specially because behaviors were modeled by petri nets. In this case, design effort was essentially focused on the only value-added task, the simulation of the target manifacturing system.

[16] Rodin, V., Harrouet, F., Ballet, P., and Tisseau, J. oRis : multiagent approach for image processing. In SPIE'98: Conference on Parallel and Distributed Methods for Image Processing (San Diego, 1998), pp. 57-68. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
In this article, we present a parallel image processing system based on the concept of reactive agents. This means that, in our system, each agent has a very simple behavior which allows it to take a decision (find out an edge, a region, ...) according to its position in the image and to the information enclosed in it. Our system lies in the oRis language, which allows to describe very finely and simply the agents' behaviors. In fact, oRis is an interpreted and dynamic multiagent language. First of all, oRis is an object language with the use of classes regrouping attributes and methods. The syntax is close to the C++ language and includes notions of multiple inheritance, oRis is also an agent language: every object with a method `main()' becomes an agent. This method is cyclically executed by the system scheduler and corresponds to the agent behavior. We also present an application made with oRis. This application allows to detect concentric striae located on different natural `objects' (age-rings of tree, fish otolith growth rings, striae of some minerals, ...). The stopping of the multiagent system is implemented through a technique issued from immunology: the apoptosis.

[15] Ballet, P., Tisseau, J., and Harrouet, F. A multiagent system to model an human secondary immune response. In IEEE SMC'97: International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (Orlando, 1997), pp. 357-362. [ bib | .pdf ]
The immune system mechanisms are very complex and the number of parameters is extremely important. Moreover, the interactions beetween the different cells during an immune response induce chaotics and non linear phenomena. Our approach consists in using the cooperative models, established by the immunologists, to build a multi-agent model. Like this, we avoid the problem of non-determinism by only encoding the basic behaviors of the agents, and the global chaotic phenomena are induced by the interactions between the agents. The advantages, face to the mathematical models, are that each agent could be viewed, modified, removed from the model or added to the model very easily. That is not the case in mathematics where a modification of an assumption generaly involves the rewriting of the model. This approach is possible because the behaviors of several immune system cells are known in their principal lines and some qualitative models of immune cell cooperations have been developped by immunologists. These models have already demonstrated their validity localy in time and in space, i.e they have not a global approach. With the multi-agent system, we can, thanks to the simulation, analyse the global consequences from the local behaviors and observe a qual- itative striking resemblance to statistical results coming from a real experimentation. We have chosen to simulate a human secondary humoral response with a multi-agent system to study the cinetic of the antibody proliferation with severals type of antigenic substances.

[14] Ballet, P., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. Multiagent boundary detection system : a way to parallel image processing. In SPIE'97: Conference on Parallel and Distributed Methods for Image Processing (San Diego, 1997), vol. 3166, pp. 316-323. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
In this article, we would like to detect boundaries of objects with the help of a multiagent system made up of reactive agents. The reactivity being very important, the agents' behavior is very simple (perception-action): they have the capacity, nevertheless, to adapt locally to what they consider their environment, that is to say the image. An agent can move and has its own position in its environment. The basic behavior for an agent consists of following the highest brightness gradient and inscribing its path, if estimating to be on an edge, in all the agents' shared memory. Its path thus corresponds to edges which are found in the image. Please note that, in order to be noise resistant, the path is actually stored in the shared memory only if it is long enough. The notion of shared memory is very important because it allows the interaction among agents and the coordination of their actions. The agents actually use already found edges for finding new ones or complete those already detected. We have tested this system on different gray scale images scenes, but as well on synthetic scenes allowing analysis of thus obtained results. The results are promising and especially fast. Our multiagent system has been tested on a single-processor computer, and it has been noted that the number of agents in a simulation neither affects the quality of the result nor CPU time necessary for segmentation of a given scene. We think that this approach is original in its use of agents and may be used to implement parallel image processing by assigning, for instance, an agent to each processor.

[13] Ballet, P., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. A multiagent system for detecting concentric strias. In SPIE'97: Conference on Parallel and Distributed Methods for Image Processing (San Diego, 1997), vol. 3164, pp. 659-666. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
We present a method for detecting concentric strias which can be found in different natural 'objects'. One of the major problems encountered during an automatic image processing is the lack of continuity perception in strias. We propose an approach to this continuity perception based on a multiagent system made up of reactive agents. These agents can move around on their environment which consists of an image made up of light and dark rings set out concentrically. Our multiagent system is made up of a set of agents named darkening agents and lightening agents. These agents follow either the light rings or the dark rings and act on the image. Their actions aim to reinforce the rings by stressing the contrasts allowing, thus, a reliable detection of these rings, even if they are discontinuous. Each agent has three sensors allowing it to obtain information about the environment. The sensor ar made up of unit sensors returning the value of a pixel. The three sensors of an agent are: (1) a unit sensor allowing the agent to know if it is located on an already detected stria, (2) two disk-shaped sensors made up of unit sensors. These two sensors return the sum of their unit sensors. They are located in front of the agent and distant one from the other. Those two disk-shaped sensors are used for determining the movements of the agent and, therefore, for detecting the rings. An agent, indeed, always tries to move where the values returned by the senors is minimal. The suggested multiagent system has shown great robustness and adaptability, for it can detect strias, even if they are discontinuous and the image noisy.

[12] Ballet, P., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. Edge detection using a multiagent system. In SCIA'97: Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis (Lappeenranta, 1997), pp. 621-626. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
In this paper, we introduce a multiagent system allowing edge detectionin an image. This system is made up mainly reactive agents in interaction thanks to a shared memory. Each agent has a very simple behavior (perception-action), and has the capacity to adapt locally to what it considers its environment, that is to say the image. An agent can move and has its own position in its environment. The basic behavior for an agent consists of following the highest brightness gradient and inscribing its path, if estimating to be on an edge, in all the agents' shared memory. Its path thus corresponds to edges which are found in the image. We think that this approach is original in its use of agents and may be used to implement parallel image processing.

[11] Benzinou, A., Troadec, H., Le Bihan, J., Rodin, V., De Pontual, H., and Tisseau, J. The locally deformable b-bubble model: an application to growth ring detection on fish otoliths. In SCIA'97: Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis (Lappeenranta, 1997), pp. 181-187. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
One of the major problems encountered during an automatic contour detection is the lack of structure continuity perception. The usual active contour concept is a powerful tool for representing this continuity. However, existing active contour models are not suited for contour detecting in textured noisy and low contrast images. In this paper, we propose a new contour detecting algorithm that we called the « Locally Deformable B-Bubble » model (LDBB) based on a paramtric B-spline representation. The originality of this approach lies in the basic structure of the model, in the way it operates, and in the expression of a new local driving force. This model evolves by small local deformations, through its control point displacement, proportionally to a local resistance. In addition, it allows the use of high level information that constraint the bubble during its evolution. This model presents a low noise and texture sensitivity. An application to fish otolith images is presented to illustrate model efficiency.

[10] Morvan, S., Reignier, P., Tisseau, J., and Le Gal, L. Visualization of cartographic data using ARéVi toolkit. In Ilog Visualization Suite International Users Meeting (Paris, 1997), pp. 1-5. [ bib | .ps ]
ARéVi (Atelier de Réalité Virtuelle) est une plate-forme multi-processus de développement d'applications de réalité virtuelle distribuée. Elle peut être utilisée pour développer rapidement, en minimisant la programmation, des applications de visualisation 3D temps réel, avec ou sans immersion des opérateurs humains. Elle permet également la mise au point d'applications de travail coopératif et d'applications de réalité virtuelle distribuée. Une application ARéVi est constituée d'un noyau chargé de la gestion de l'univers virtuel (entités présentes, leurs comportements, leur affichage) et d'interfaces homme-machine spécialisées pour l'univers considéré (interfaces métiers). Dans ce papier nous présentons l'utilisation d'ARéVi pour la visualisation de données cartographiques 3D dans le cadre du projet CARAIBES (CARtographie Appliquée à l'Imagerie et la BathymétriE des Sonars et sondeurs multifaisceaux) de l'IFREMER Brest (Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer).

[9] Gaudillat, F., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. Real-time tracking movements using a video camera and a position sensor. In FIVE'96: Framework for Immersive Virtual Environments Conference (Pisa, 1996), pp. 70-72. [ bib | .pdf ]
This paper describes a real-time tracking movement system running on a SGI Indy station. It deals more particularly with the data fusion from a position sensor and a standard color camera so as to speed up processing. Variations of the shape ot the hand are taken into account using an active contour model, and the motion of the hand is detected by the position sensor. We describe a method to find local deformation by segmentation, filtering and moving of an active contour. We will also account into details for the use of global deformation allowing to follow the user's fast moves. That last point implies a calibration of the camera-sensor couple to know the location of the sensor in the image at all times.

[8] Naim, A., and Tisseau, J. Petri nets and prolog. In PAP'96: International Conference on the Practical Application of Prolog (London, 1996), pp. 555-564. [ bib ]

[7] Rodin, V., Troadec, H., De Pontual, H., Benzinou, A., Tisseau, J., and Le Bihan, J. Growth ring detection on fish otoliths by a graph construction. In IEEE ICIP'96: International Conference on Image Processing (Lausanne, 1996), pp. 685-688. [ bib | .pdf ]
In this paper we present an algorithm for the detection of fish otolith growth rings based on a graph construction method. The identification of growth rings, for age estimation, is routinely achieved in fishery laboratories by human readers. One of the major problem encountered during an automatic image processing is the lack of ring continuity perception. We present an approach to this continuity perception based on the 2D reconstruction of rings from the restoration of the connectivity of nodes detected in polar coordinates. The node connection is based on an a przorz knowledge of ring geometry.

[6] Kerzerho, J.-P., Antunes, F., Gerval, J.-P., Cardozo, E. L., and Tisseau, J. Prototyping an integrated system for predictive maintenance. In IFAC LSS'95: Symposium on Large Scale Systems : Theory and Applications (London, 1995), pp. 1-5. [ bib | .pdf ]

[5] Nédélec, A., Tisseau, J., and Morvan, S. Virtual reality and object databases management system in a computer cooperative work context. In Graphicon'95: International Conference on Graphics and Visualization (Saint-Petersburg, 1995), pp. 186-190. [ bib | .ps ]

[4] Tisseau, J., Cozien, R., Alas, P., and Harrouet, F. Multi-fuzzy agents simulation of an insects colony. In EUFIT'95: European Congress on Intelligent Techniques and Soft Computing (Aachen, 1995), pp. 666-669. [ bib ]

[3] Naim, A., and Tisseau, J. Simulation of colored petri nets in concurrent logic programming. In IEEE-ETFA'95: Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (Paris, 1995), vol. 1, pp. 563-572. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This paper deals with a modelization of colored Petri Nets (colored PN) in concurrent logic programming. The manufacturing system simulation well shows a growing interest for the PN implementation in logic programming, where the nodes of PN will be seen as interprocess communication.

[2] Gerval, J.-P., Tisseau, J., and Morel, G. Toward a methodology for designing intelligent manufacturing systems : a set of metarules and their application to a greenhouse. In AMSE IS'94: Conference on Intelligent Systems (Pretoria, 1994), pp. 337-346. [ bib | .pdf ]

[1] Duval, T., Morvan, S., and Tisseau, J. Virtual reality techniques applied to computer integrated manufacturing. In ORIA'94: From Telepresence Towards Virtual Reality (Marseille, 1994), pp. 153-160. [ bib ]
After a glance at the ARéVi project, we present one of its possible fields of application : a virtual NC machine tool. In order to simulate, and then to teleinspect and teleoperate a real NC machine, we wish to develop and use some virtual reality techniques. All this work is to be running on a SGI workstation Indigo. Here, we mainly talk about simulation, because it is the most important step (because the first one) toward teleinspection and teleoperation. We present the most important problems we have encountered to obtain a virtual machine from a real one, and all the work to realize in order to authorize its simulation.


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Conférences nationales

[12] Gaubert, L., Redou, P., Harrouet, F., and Tisseau, J. Analyse mathématique du tri du couvain par les fourmis : auto-organisation fonctionnelle dénuée d'intelligence collective. In JFSMA'07 : Journées Francophones sur les Systèmes Multi-Agents (Carcassonne, 2007), pp. 13-22. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
Le phénomène du tri du couvain chez certaines espèces de fourmis est connu comme un des principaux exemples de la capacité des insectes sociaux à résoudre des problèmes à l'échelle collective. Deux processus caractérisent le phé- nomène : l'agrégation des objets du couvain et leur tri en anneaux concentriques se distinguant par la taille des objets qu'ils regroupent. Malgré son influence dans la conception de systèmes multi-agents, aucune explication formelle de ce phénomène n'a été proposée. Nous présentons un modèle mathématique reposant sur des hypo- thèses minimales et issues des modèles informa- tiques existants. Son étude nous permet de prou- ver que le phénomène d'agrégation est indépen- dant du nombre d'agents à l'oeuvre. En outre, nous montrons comment les structures annu- laires observées dans les colonies de fourmis émergent naturellement, sans hypothèses sup- plémentaires. Ces travaux prouvent que le tri du couvain est un exemple d'auto-organisation fonctionnelle dénuée d'intelligence collective.

[11] Prigent, G., Harrouet, F., Tisseau, J., and Paul, F. Simulation hybride de la sécurité des systèmes d'information. Vers un environnement virtuel de formation. In SSTIC'05 : Symposium sur la Sécurité des Technologies de l'Information et des Communications (Rennes, 2005), pp. 1-15. [ bib | http | .pdf ]

[10] Popovici, M., Morvan, S., Maisel, E., and Tisseau, J. Ozanne project : a framework for interactive distributed guided tours of historical sites. In ICHIM'03 : International Cultural Heritage Informatics Meeting (Paris, 2003), pp. 1-14. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
In this paper we propose a new metaphor of information retrieving, usable in heritage management and publishing. Based on the net, the user is able to participate in virtual guided tours, sessions of conferences-like. A human expert will be the guide for all the connected users. He will use different media (sound/video) to communicate; the members of the guided group will communicate between them through chat sessions. Each virtual tourist will be autonomous in its 3D world movements but he will receive audio/video information or other multimedia documents or 3D objects, eventually autonomous entities placed in its 3D virtual universe, from its guide. The guide is able to suggest to its group of tourists some interesting viewpoints during the tour. More, he is able to augment the database, particularly the associated behaviours to the entities. It is enough to analyse the entities in a scene and to attach them some new behaviours. For example, he can place in the environment some virtual guides, and the users will interact with them. These virtual guides recognise some keywords or intentions; i.e. if a tourist spends some time near a specific place, the virtual guide will initiate a dialog upon the place's history. The user is able to cancel the dialog with a virtual guide and return to its group. The application is based on the ARéViJava (Atelier de Réalite Virtuelle) platform, developed in our laboratory.

[9] Parenthoën, M., Tisseau, J., and Morineau, T. Perception active pour acteurs virtuels. In LFA'02 : Rencontres Francophones sur la Logique Floue et ses Applications (Montpellier, 2002), pp. 219-226. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
Cette étude se situe dans le cadre de l'ergonomie cognitive et de la réalité virtuelle. Nous proposons de modéliser et d'implémenter le comportement d'agents virtuels autonomes grâce à des idées issues de psychologie (graphes cognitifs flous, affordances) et de neurophysiologie (perception active). Nous décrivons les bases d'un modèle comportemental imitant la perception humaine. La notion psychologique d'« affordance » va nous guider dans la construction de graphes cognitifs spécifiant le comportement d'acteurs virtuels. Selon Alain Berthoz, neurophysiologue, la perception n'est pas seulement une interprétation des messages sensoriels : c'est aussi une simulation interne de l'action et une anticipation de ses conséquences. En s'inspirant d'expériences neurophysiologiques sur l'hippocampe à propos d'oscillations permettant la prédiction de trajectoires, notre acteur virtuel anticipe son comportement dans un monde imaginaire. Cette simulation dans la simulation lui permet de prédire « biologiquement » les conséquences de ses actions. Nous appliquons ce modèle en implémentant dans l'environnement multi-agent oRis un barreur virtuel pour l'entraînement sportif sur voilier virtuel.

[8] Le Parc, P., Querrec, R., Chevaillier, P., Tisseau, J., and Marcé, L. Un environnement de développement pour la conception des systèmes automatisés de production. In MSR'99 : Congrès sur la Modélisation des Systèmes Réactifs (Cachan, 1999), pp. 407-416. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
This paper presents a set of tools to design automated manufacturing systems. This development toolkit integrates virtual reality techniques to simulate the operative part and a case tool which allows to generate an executable command program from a Grafcet requirement specification. The application to the KorSo automated production cell shows the benefit of the integration of these two techniques.

[7] Chevaillier, P., Harrouet, F., and Tisseau, J. oRis : un environnement pour la simulation multi-agents des systèmes manufacturiers de production. In MOSIM'99 : Conférence francophone de modélisation et de simulation (Annecy, 1999), pp. 225-230. [ bib | .pdf ]
Cet article présente les caractéristiques du langage de programmation par objets actifs oRis et son environnement d'exécution. Celui-ci constitue un outil générique pour la simulation de systèmes multi-agents. Parce qu'il intègre les principes de la programmation objet et une interface avec un langage d'IA (Prolog), oRis permet de simuler des modèles multi-formalismes (agents réactifs et cognitifs). Il est, de ce fait, particulièrement adaptés à la simulation des systèmes manufacturiers de production pour lesquels il est nécessaire de simuler à la fois le comportement du système opérants et les règles de gestion et de pilotage. La présentation du modèle de systèmes d'agents retenu montre l'intérêt de l'approche agents dans ce cadre.

[6] Ballet, P., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. Intérêts mutuels des systèmes multi-agents et de l'immunologie. In CID'98 : Complexité, Intelligence, Décision (Lyon, 1998), pp. 141-153. [ bib | .pdf ]
Multiagent systems and immunology are two fields, which firstly do not seem to be correlated. One comes from the data processing field and more precisely from the distributed artificial intelligence and the other one comes from the microbiology sector. The first one aims at the achievement of distributed cognitive and reactive models, and the second one deals with the comprehension of the immune system. Contrary to appearences, narrow links exist between them. Effectively, putting together multiagent systems and immunology is doubly interesting. On the one hand, the multiagent system field brings the ability to simulate thaks to computer immune phenomena. On the other hand, immunology offers a big amount of mechanisms of regulation, selection and cooperative behaviors, which can be used for the development of data processing applications. This paper is twofold. Firstly, it presents the interest of multiagent systems for the modeling and the simulation of immune phenomena. Secondly, it concerns the using of immune mechanisms for the automatic regulation of data processing systems based on multiagent systems. More precisely, the first part presents two immune simulations we have achieved and compared to real experimentation. The second part explains the way we have applied an immune principle of regulation to a multiagent system dedicated to image processing.

[5] Querrec, R., Tarot, S., Chevaillier, P., and Tisseau, J. Simulation d'une cellule de production. Utilisation d'un modèle à base d'agents contrôlés par réseaux de petri. In AGIS'97 : Colloque de Recherche Doctorale Automatique, Génie informatique, Image et Signal (Angers, 1997), pp. 209-214. [ bib ]

[4] Rodin, V., Gaudillat, F., and Tisseau, J. Fusion de données électromagnétiques et vidéo pour le suivi de mouvements temps réel. In Interfaces'97 : Journées Internationales sur l'Interface des Mondes Réels et Virtuels (Montpellier, 1997), pp. 28-31. [ bib | .pdf ]
This paper describes a real-time tracking movement system running on a SGI Indy station. It deals more particularly with the data fusion from a position sensor and a standard color camera so as to speed up processing. Variations of the shape ot the hand are taken into account using an active contour model, and the motion of the hand is detected by the position sensor. We describe a method to find local deformation by segmentation, filtering and moving of an active contour. We will also account into details for the use of global deformation allowing to follow the user's fast moves. That last point implies a calibration of the camera-sensor couple to know the location of the sensor in the image at all times.

[3] Chevaillier, P., Querrec, R., and Tisseau, J. Modélisation multi-agents d'une cellule de production. In CNP'97 : Colloque National de Productique (Casablanca, 1997), pp. 1-10. [ bib | .pdf ]

[2] Cozien, R., Tisseau, J., Alas, P., and Harrouet, F. Simulation multi-agents flous d'une colonie d'insectes. In Rochebrune'95 : Evolution et organisation. Hasard et contraintes dans la genèse des formes collectives (Rochebrune, 1995), pp. 87-91. [ bib ]

[1] Duval-Beaupère, G., Ovazza, D., Tisseau, J., Pascal, A., Roche, P., and Csakvary, E. Mise au point d'un appareil de mesure de la masse de segments corporels et de son point d'application. In INSERM : colloque de synthèse d'action thématique 6 (1975), pp. 165-177. [ bib ]


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Communications

[35] De Loor, P., Parenthoën, M., Manach, K., and Tisseau, J. Fondements énactifs de la cognition artificielle: Que devient la notion de contexte ? In Les journées de Rochebrune : Rencontres interdisciplinaires sur les systèmes complexes naturels et artificiels (Rochebrune, 19 janvier 2010). [ bib ]

[34] Tisseau, J. Intelligence artificielle et réalité virtuelle : même combat interdisciplinaire ? In Séminaire Institut Supérieur des Sciences et technologies de Brest (ISSTB-UBO) (Brest, 11 décembre 2009). [ bib | http ]

[33] Tisseau, J. Modélisation et simulation des systèmes complexes : enjeux épistémologiques. In Journée pédagogique ENSIETA-Ecole Navale La complexité : quels défis pour les formations d'ingénieurs ? Enjeux technologiques, épistémologiques et pédagogiques (Brest, 10 décembre 2009). [ bib ]

[32] Tisseau, J. in virtuo. In Séminaire immuno-pathologie-UBO (Brest, 3 février 2009). [ bib | http ]

[31] Tisseau, J. Réalité virtuelle et complexité. In Séminaire Heudiasyc-UTC (Compiègne, 3 avril 2007). [ bib | http ]

[30] Tisseau, J. Virtuoscope : réalité virtuelle et complexité. In Séminaire Institut de Cognitique (Bordeaux, 2 décembre 2005). [ bib | http ]

[29] Tisseau, J., and Parenthoën, M. La modélisation énactive. In AFIG'05 : Association Française d'Informatique Graphique (Strasbourg, 29 novembre 2005). [ bib | http | .pdf ]

[28] Simonnet, M., Guinard, J.-Y., and Tisseau, J. Les modalités tactiles et auditives pour une représentation spatiale non visuelle : une application en voile pour les marins non voyants. In GTAS'05 : Groupe de Travail Animation et Simulation (Lille, 31 mai 2005). [ bib | .pdf ]
Nous cherchons à mettre au point une stratégie de repérage spatial pour les marins non voyants. Après le sens visuel, les informations issues des modalités haptique (tactilo-kinesthésique) et auditive sont les plus appropriées à la construction de représentations spatiales imagées. Nous utilisons le sens haptique à travers des cartes en relief représentant le parcours. La modalité auditive est exploitée par des bouées sonores qui balisent le parcours et une montre vocale pour mesurer les temps de parcours. Suite à une série d'expériences isolant ces différents outils, nous concluons que la carte en relief permet de stocker en mémoire à long terme une image tactile précise du parcours. Cependant le support papier ne permet pas une actualisation en cours d'action. Les bouées sonores remplissent cette fonction de façon limitée en offrant aux sujets des retours auditifs lors du passage de celles-ci. La vitesse constante du voilier permet aux marins non-voyants de réaliser un tour de référence et de relever des temps de parcours associer à des fractions de distances reportées sur la carte en relief. Les difficultés d'utilisation de ce système en cours d'action nous mènent à faire appel aux techniques de la réalité virtuelle pour tenter de transmettre des informations haptiques en cours de navigation. Cependant un grand nombre d'interrogations constitueront le support de cette thèse de doctorat en psychologie cognitive qui débute.

[27] Parenthoën, M., Jourdan, T., and Tisseau, J. Visualisation de la mer: un épiphénomène maritime. In GTRV'04 : Groupe de Travail Rendu et Visualisation (Poitiers, 8 avril 2004), pp. 11-20. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
Aucun des modèles actuels de l'animation interactive de la mer ne tient compte simultanément pour un plan d'eau hétérogène à l'échelle de la dizaine de kilomètres carrés des effets locaux des déferlements, du vent, des courants et de la bathymétrie sur des groupes de vagues de toutes les longueurs d'onde, phénomènes pourtant essentiels pour que la simulation maritime ait du sens pour les marins et reste physiquement crédible aux yeux des océanographes. Nous proposons une nouvelle approche pour l'animation interactive temps-réel de la mer : plutôt que de résoudre numériquement des équations du type Navier-Stokes sur un maillage prédéfini, nous utilisons des résultats théoriques et expérimentaux de l'océanographie pour modéliser des entités autonomes, interagissant en un système multi-agents sans passer par un maillage ni prédéfini, ni adaptatif. Notre modèle IPAS (Interactive Phenomenological Animation of the Sea) comprend des entités autonomes telles que des groupes de vagues, des déferlements actifs et passifs, des vents locaux, des haut-fond et des courants. Une partie de la totalité des interactions est modélisée. Dans une telle approche, la visualisation de la mer apparaît comme un epiphénomène, où l'observateur humain est au même niveau conceptuel que les entités réalisant l'animation.

[26] Tisseau, J., Parenthoën, M., and Jourdan, T. Animation phénoménologique d'un environnement virtuel : application à la mer. In GTAS'04 : Groupe de Travail Animation et Simulation (Reims, 17 juin 2004), pp. 5-9. [ bib | http | .pdf ]

[25] Querrec, G., Rodin, V., Abgrall, J.-F., and Tisseau, J. Modélisation de la voie des MAPK par un graphe d'inférences flou pour les simulations multi-agents. In Séminaire sur la modélisation et la simulation de processus biologiques dans le contexte de la génomique (Dieppe, 14 mai 2003). [ bib ]
La recherche médicale est grande pourvoyeuse de données. la modélisation et la simulation informatique sont alors devenues des outils indispensables pour comprendre ces phénomènes et pour aider les biologistes à orienter leurs recherches. Nous développons des modèles multi-agents de cellules pour les biologistes. cependant, les agent-cellules doivent avoir un comportement cohérent. Nous proposons ici l'utilisation d'un graphe d'inférences flou pour la modélisation et la simulation des réseaux biochimiques régulant le comportement cellulaire. Dans cette étude, nous avons simulé deux modèles de la voie des MAPK dont un modèle impliquant une rétro-action négative et un comportement cyclique. le comportement de cette voie varie d'une cellule à l'autre mais reste cohérent. par contre, la simulation à grande échelle montre que les comportements globaux de ces modèles se rapprochent de ceux obtenus par équations différentielles. Par conséquent, cette méthodologie semble être appropriée pour donner à nos agent-cellules un comportement basé sur les réseaux biochimiques de régulation intracellulaires.

[24] Morvan, S., Maisel, E., and Tisseau, J. ARéViJava : une plateforme de réalité virtuelle pour les visites guidées de sites patrimoniaux. In Séminaire Maquette virtuelle et patrimoine (Cluny, 14 mars 2003). [ bib ]

[23] Parenthoën, M., Gourrion, J., and Tisseau, J. Les états de mer : un état de l'art. In AFIG'03 : Association Française d'Informatique Graphique (Paris, 5 décembre 2003), pp. 129-140. [ bib | http | .pdf ]
Cet article dresse un état de l'art des principaux points de vue qui doivent être pris en compte pour une animation interactive temps réel de la mer. Le point de vue des marins nous apprend que la mer est essentiellement un plan d'eau hétérogène où de nombreux eléments naturels (vagues, vents, déferlements, courants, hauts-fonds...) interagissent localement et guident les choix stratégiques des marins. Le point de vue des océanographes distingue deux grands types d'entités energétiques : les groupes de vagues et les déferlements. Ces deux types d'entités interagissent entre elles et avec l'environnement (vents, courants, hauts-fonds) pour générer un état de mer hétérogène où les différents phénomènes observés par les marins sont expliqués physiquement. Enfin, le point de vue des infographistes repose sur des simplifications des solutions approchées aux équations de Navier-Stokes et cherche un équilibre entre deux grandes approches inspirées d'hypothèses océanographiques : une approche particulaire et une approche spectrale. Cependant, aucun modèle actuel d'animation temps réel de la mer ne tient compte simultanément a l'échelle d'un plan d'eau hétérogène d'une dizaine de kilomètres des effets locaux des déferlements, des vents, des courants et de la bathymétrie sur des groupes de vagues, et ce à toutes les échelles de longueurs d'onde, phénomènes pourtant essentiels pour que la simulation maritime ait du sens pour les marins et reste physiquement crédible aux yeux des océanographes.

[22] Thibaut, E., and Tisseau, J. Bio-informatique, enjeux et perspectives. In Technovation'02 (Brest, 13 mars 2002). [ bib ]

[21] Parenthoën, M., Buche, C., and Tisseau, J. Apprentissage par imitation pour l'autonomie des acteurs virtuels. In GTAS'02 : Groupe de Travail Animation et Simulation (Bordeaux, 13 juin 2002). [ bib | .pdf ]

[20] Tisseau, J. La réalité virtuelle : des agents autonomes pour la sécurité. In Les Mardis de l'ingénierium (Angers, 26 février 2002). [ bib ]

[19] Tisseau, J., and Abgrall, J.-F. in vivo, in vitro, in virtuo. In Séminaire de cancérologie - Hopital Européen Georges Pompidou (Paris, 30 novembre 2001). [ bib ]

[18] Tisseau, J. Modélisation comportementale. In Journée ECRIN : La réalité virtuelle : outils et opportunités (Rennes, 18 octobre 2001). [ bib ]

[17] Tisseau, J., and Nédélec, A. Réalité virtuelle : un contexte historique interdisciplinaire. In AFIG'01 : Association Française d'Informatique Graphique (Limoges, 29 novembre 2001). [ bib | .pdf ]
De la représentation d'objets de la réalité sur une surface bidimensionnelle à l'immersion d'utilisateurs coopérant dans un univers 3D numérique peuplé d'entités autonomes interactives et collaboratives, la réalité virtuelle a suivi de nombreuses évolutions. Le but de cet article est de faire un tour d'horizon du contexte historique duquel émerge le concept de réalité virtuelle, illustrant ainsi le dynamisme de l'informatique graphique. Mais il montre également que c'est au sein d'un véritable creuset interdisciplinaire que se forgent cette nouvelle expression et ce nouveau champ d'investigation, qui bénéficient ainsi des apports conjoints de l'informatique graphique, de la simulation, de la conception assistée par ordinateur, de la téléopération, de l'audiovisuel, des télécommunications... Ainsi, issue des travaux interdisciplinaires sur l'image numérique de synthèse, la réalité virtuelle transcende ses origines et s'affirme aujourd'hui comme une nouvelle discipline au sein des sciences de l'ingénieur. Elle concerne la spécification, la conception et la réalisation d'univers virtuels réalistes et participatifs.

[16] Parenthoën, M., Morineau, T., and Tisseau, J. Affordances implemented by fuzzy cognitive maps for believable agents. In EURO'01 : European Operational Research Conference (Rotterdam, 10 juillet 2001). [ bib | .pdf ]
This article lies within the interactive virtual stories telling scope and proposes the use of fuzzy cognitive maps as a tool to model emotional behavior of virtual actors improvising in free interaction. We show how fuzzy cognitive maps can be delocalized on each agent level to model autonomous agents within a virtual world. Then, within the framework of the realization of a virtual sailing ship intended for the sporting drive, we create a virtual helsman. The virtual environment must be ecologically valid in order to be intuitively explored and used. Researches in ecological psychology show that individuals base their behaviours on affordances. They are directly perceived without cognitive effort and drive the modalities of action. We proposes the use of the fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) as a tool to modelize the affordances. We implemented FCMs and we use them to extract the affordances automatically from the sailor environment. We validate the virtual hels- man thus prototyped by measuring his capacities of imitation, according to whether he uses these affordances or not, compared to a real helmsman. We show thus that FCMs are particularly well adapted to the modeling of the affordances and can contribute to characterize believable agents roles.

[15] Tisseau, J., Youinou, P., and Abgrall, J.-F. Simulation multi-agents en recherche médicale. In Forum de l'innovation, Instrumentation biomédicale (Brest, 1 décembre 1999). [ bib ]
[14] Tisseau, J., Reignier, P., and Harrouet, F. Exploitation de modèles et réalité virtuelle. In GTAS'98 : Groupe de Travail Animation et Simulation (Toulouse, 27 octobre 1998). [ bib | .pdf ]
Le terme équivoque de réalité virtuelle relève d'un procédé rhétorique, appelé oxymoron, qui consiste à réunir deux mots qui semblent incompatibles ou contradictoires; ce type de construction donne ainsi à l'expression un caractère inattendu qui, il faut bien en convenir, est plus médiatique que scientifique. Pour préciser ce que nous entendons par réalité virtuelle, nous considérons ici la réalité virtuelle du point de vue de l'exploitation des modèles qu'elle manipule en adoptant une démarche systémique. Un modèle est une représentation artificielle d'un phénomène ou d'une idée; c'est une étape intermédiaire entre le sensible et l'intelligible, entre le phénomène et son idéalisation, entre l'idée et sa perception. Cette représentation repose sur un système de symboles qui ont un sens, non seulement pour le concepteur qui les agence, mais également pour l'utilisateur qui les perçoit, la sémantique de l'utilisateur étant éventuellement différente de celle du concepteur. L'approche systémique aborde l'étude des modèles à travers trois filtres différents : elle pondère un point de vue ontologique (ce qu'EST le modèle), un point de vue fonctionnel (ce que FAIT le modèle), et un point de vue génétique (ce que DEVIENT le modèle). Ce qu'EST le modèle, c'est ce que l'utilisateur perçoit en observant l'activité du modèle à l'aide de l'ensemble de ses canaux sensoriels; c'est le domaine de l'animation temps réel. Ce que FAIT le modèle, c'est ce que l'utilisateur découvre en testant la réactivité du modèle à travers l'expérimentation du modèle; c'est le domaine de la simulation interactive. Ce que DEVIENT le modèle, c'est ce que l'utilisateur produit en modifiant lui-même le modèle avec le même pouvoir d'expression que le concepteur; c'est le domaine de la modélisation en ligne. Du point de vue de l'exploitation des modèles, la réalité virtuelle regroupe ainsi l'ensemble des méthodes et des outils permettant, par immersion, de percevoir, expérimenter et modifier des modèles, en temps réel, de manière interactive et coopérative; ce qui confère à la réalité virtuelle un statut d'ingénierie des modèles.

[13] Tisseau, J., Reignier, P., and Harrouet, F. Animation, simulation et réalité virtuelle. In ARéVi'98 : Ateliers de Réalité Virtuelle (Brest, 12 juin 1998). [ bib ]

[12] Reignier, P., Tisseau, J., and Harrouet, F. oRis, un noyau multi-agents pour ARéVi. In ARéVi'97 : Ateliers de Réalité Virtuelle (Brest, 13 juin 1997). [ bib ]

[11] Harrouet, F., Cozien, R., Reignier, P., and Tisseau, J. oRis : un langage pour simulations multi-agents. In Poster JFIADSMA'97 : Journées Francophones pour l'Intelligence Artificielle Distribuée et les Systèmes Multi-Agents (La Colle sur Loup, 3 avril 1997). [ bib | .pdf ]

[10] Reignier, P., Harrouet, F., Morvan, S., Tisseau, J., and Duval, T. ARéVi 4.0 : une plate-forme multi-agents de réalité virtuelle. In AFIG'97 : Association Française d'Informatique Graphique (Rennes, 4 décembre 1997). [ bib | .pdf ]
ARéVi is a distributed virtual reality toolkit. Its kernel (a group of C++ classes) allows the creation of co-operative and distributed virtual reality applications by minimizing the programming effort. ARéVi is built around a dynamic multiagent language: oRis . At any time, this language allows to stop the session on, to add new entities (planned or not when starting the session), to modify an entity or an entire entity family behavior. More generally, oRis allows the user to interact with the agents by directly using their language, thus offering a way of immersion through the language.

[9] Tisseau, J. La réalité virtuelle. In ARéVi'96 : Ateliers de Réalité Virtuelle (Brest, 7 juin 1996). [ bib ]

[8] Morvan, S., Duval, T., Nédélec, A., Reignier, P., Rodin, V., and Tisseau, J. Enseignement de la réalité virtuelle : une expérience. In GTRV'96 : Groupe de Travail Réalité Virtuelle (Rennes, 29 janvier 1996). [ bib ]

[7] Gerval, J.-P., Cullen, J., Tisseau, J., and Cardozo, E. L. Distant monitoring of automated process. In ICCTA'96 : International Congress for Computer Technology in Agriculture (Wageningen, 17 juin 1996). [ bib | .pdf ]

[6] Tisseau, J. Interfaces multimodales : vers l'immersion multisensorielle. In TBI'95 : Journées thématiques du Technopole Brest-Iroise (Brest, 26 octobre 1995). [ bib ]

[5] Kerzerho, J.-P., Antunes, F., Gerval, J.-P., Cardozo, E. L., and Tisseau, J. Toward a computer aided maintenance based on behaviour modelling. In IA'95: International Conference on Industrial Automation (Nancy, 8 juin 1995). [ bib | .pdf ]

[4] Morvan, S., Tisseau, J., and Duval, T. Modélisation de déformations par réseaux de neurones. In GTRV'95 : Groupe de Travail Réalité Virtuelle (Grenoble, 10 février 1995). [ bib ]

[3] Duval, T., Morvan, S., and Tisseau, J. Un modèle d'architecture logicielle pour la simulation. In GTAS'94 : Groupe de Travail Animation et Simulation (Lille, 20 octobre 1994), pp. 41-50. [ bib | .pdf ]
Nous présentons ici un modèle d'architecture logicielle permettant de construire des simulateurs. Après avoir rapidement expliqué dans quel contexte de travail nous nous plaçons, nous présentons notre modèle, les simulateurs auxquels nous l'appliquons, puis comment utiliser effectivement ce modèle pour construire de nouveaux simulateurs. Enfin nous terminons par une ouverture du modèle vers d'autres champs d'application que la simulation, comme la téléopération et le travail coopératif.

[2] Duval, T., Morvan, S., and Tisseau, J. MOCN virtuelle. In CAP'7 94 : Conférence Annuelle des Pôles Productique (Brest, 9 juin 1994), pp. 1-6. [ bib | .pdf ]
Après une rapide description du projet ARéVi, nous présentons l'une des composantes de ce projet : une MOCN virtuelle. Nous souhaitons développer et utiliser des techniques de réalité virtuelle afin de simuler une MOCN (bien réelle), la télésurveiller et la téléopérer, tout ceci à l'aide d'une station de travail Silicon Graphics. L'accent est mis ici sur l'aspect simulation, qui est en fait l'étape la plus importante, puisque c'est sur elle que reposeront la télésurveillance et la téléopération. Nous décrivons donc les principales difficultés rencontrées lors du passage d'une machine réelle à une machine virtuelle, puis ce qu'il reste à faire afin de passer à la simulation.

[1] Tisseau, J. Le projet ARéVi. In APMEP'94 : Journées nationales de l'Association des Professeurs de Mathématiques de l'Enseignement Public (Brest, 15 octobre 1994), pp. 1-7. [ bib ]


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Actes de conférences

[2] Tisseau, J., and Cani, M.-P. Actes des 10emes journées du Groupe de Travail Animation et Simulation : GTAS'03. Tech. rep., Association Française d'Informatique Graphique, Brest, 16-17 juin 2003. [ bib ]

[1] Tisseau, J., and Subsol, G. Proceedings of the first French-British International Workshop on Virtual Reality : GTRV'00. Tech. rep., Association Française d'Informatique Graphique, Brest, 11-12 juin 2000. [ bib ]


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Rapports nationaux

[5] Tisseau, J., Vieilledent, S., and De Loor, P. Sciences cognitives, réalité virtuelle et arts. Tech. rep., ANR-PIRSTEC: Prospective interdisciplinaire en réseau pour les sciences et technologies cognitives, atelier n°20 Cognition et réalité virtuelle, Paris, octobre 2009. [ bib ]

[4] Bechmann, D., Coquillart, S., Chaillou, C., Donikian, S., Guitton, P., Jessel, J.-P., Paulin, M., Péroche, B., and Tisseau, J. Rapport de prospective sur la réalité virtuelle et l'informatique graphique. Tech. rep., CNRS RTP7 Réalité virtuelle, 18 pages, Paris, janvier 2005. [ bib ]

[3] Burkhardt, J.-M., Donikian, S., Duthen, Y., Heguy, O., Lourdeaux, D., Morineau, T., Parenthoën, M., Sanza, C., and Tisseau, J. Comportements humains individuels et collectifs. Tech. rep., CNRS AS Humain virtuel, 154 pages, Paris, mars 2005. [ bib | .pdf ]
La modélisation du comportement humain est abordée dans et par différentes disciplines comme la psychologie, l'ergonomie, la neurophysiologie, l'intelligence artificielle, l'économie, etc. Il est central en Psychologie, où le comportement humain constitue l'objet, sinon d'étude, du moins au travers duquel l'activité mentale est possiblement atteignable selon les critères de la science. Il est aussi important en ergonomie -en particulier cognitive- pour guider la conception et l'évaluation des technologies et des situations de travail. Il n'en est pas moins également important dans une certaine approche de l'intelligence artificielle, soit pour fournir une spécification ou une analogie exploitable par l'automatique et l'informatique pour résoudre des problèmes complexes, soit pour fournir des techniques permettant la simulation et la confrontation aux données recueillies par la Psychologie.

L'objectif de ce document est de proposer au lecteur une synthèses des grandes lignes/dimensions qui structurent ce domaine de la modélisation psychologique et informatique du comportement humain. La psychologie, l'ergonomie et l'intelligence artificielle sont, en effet, parmi les disciplines à avoir nouer des liens et échanger sur cette question de longues dates. De plus, nous traitons essentiellement des modèles du sujet individuel comprenant une composante « cognitive », ou s'appuyant pour le moins explicitement sur des données mettant en évidence le fonctionnement d'une telle composante. Compte tenu de l'ampleur du domaine, nous ne visons clairement pas l'exhaustivité. C'est pourquoi nous ne traitons pas de façon réellement séparée les modèles psychologiques et les modèles informatiques. L'organisation du document est la suivante. Après une première partie introductive concernant la modélisation du comportement et quelques définitions ou clarifications, ce texte présente un certain nombre de modèles, du point de vue de leur fondation empirique, d'une part, et les propriétés des architectures utilisées pour la simulation, d'autre part.

[2] Tisseau, J. Le virtuoscope : propositions pour les pôles de compétitivité. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest et Région Bretagne, 65 pages, Brest, janvier 2005. [ bib | .pdf ]

[1] Tisseau, J. Manifeste scientifique du CERV. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 25 pages, Brest, juin 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]


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Mémoires

[4] Tisseau, J. ENIB : rapport d'auto-évaluation. Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 23 novembre 2010. [ bib | .pdf ]

[3] Tisseau, J. Réalité virtuelle : autonomie in virtuo. Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches, Université de Rennes 1, 6 décembre 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]

[2] Tisseau, J. Etudes structurales du bassin de Somalie et de l'extrémité occidentale du Golfe d'Aden (Océan Indien Occidental Nord). PhD thesis, Université de Paris XI (Orsay), 12 juillet 1978. [ bib ]

[1] Tisseau, J. Relation âge-profondeur dans l'océan Indien occidental. Tech. rep., DEA de Géophysique, Université de Paris XI (Orsay), juin 1976. [ bib ]


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Manuels de cours

[25] Tisseau, J. Initiation à l'algorithmique. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 271 pages, 2009. [ bib | .pdf ]

[24] Tisseau, J. Méta-exposé : un exposé sur les exposés. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 51 pages, 2006. [ bib | .pdf ]

[23] Tisseau, J. Algorithmique et structures de données. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 295 pages, 1999. [ bib ]

[22] Tisseau, J., Chevaillier, P., Harrouet, F., and Nédélec, A. Des procédures aux agents : application en oRis. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 110 pages, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]

[21] Tisseau, J., and Morvan, S. Programmation par objets : le langage C++, règles d'écriture. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 31 pages, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]

[20] Tisseau, J. Programmation par objets : le langage C++, Type concret de données en C++. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 30 pages, 1997. [ bib | .pdf ]

[19] Tisseau, J. Programmation par objets : le langage C++, Standard Template Library. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 343 pages, 1996. [ bib | .pdf ]

[18] Tisseau, J. Systèmes multi-agents pour la réalité virtuelle. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 42 pages, 1995. [ bib ]

[17] Tisseau, J., and Morvan, S. Structures de données. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 42 pages, 1994. [ bib | .pdf ]

[16] Tisseau, J. Réseaux de Petri. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 110 pages, 1994. [ bib ]

[15] Tisseau, J., Morvan, S., Duval, T., Harrouet, F., Nédélec, A., Oussin, R., Reignier, P., and Rodin, V. Le langage C++ : travaux pratiques. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 101 pages, 1994. [ bib | .pdf ]

[14] Tisseau, J., and Morvan, S. Programmation par objets : le langage C++. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 251 pages, 1994. [ bib | .pdf ]

[13] Tisseau, J. Programmation par objets : les concepts. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 67 pages, 1994. [ bib | .pdf ]

[12] Tisseau, J., and Vanderwegen, P. Mathematica : les mathématiques assistées par ordinateur. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 75 pages, 1994. [ bib ]

[11] Tisseau, J. UNIX : le système d'exploitation. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 150 pages, 1991. [ bib ]

[10] Tisseau, J., and Serres, D. LATEX : aide-mémoire. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 66 pages, 1991. [ bib ]

[9] Tisseau, J. Prolog : le langage. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 96 pages, 1991. [ bib | .pdf ]

[8] Tisseau, J., and Morvan, S. Programmation structurée : le langage C. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 214 pages, 1990. [ bib ]

[7] Tisseau, J. Programmation structurée. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 53 pages, 1986. [ bib ]

[6] Tisseau, J. Physique du solide. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 95 pages, 1985. [ bib ]

[5] Tisseau, J. Electromagnétisme. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 83 pages, 1984. [ bib ]

[4] Tisseau, J. Optique géométrique. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 34 pages, 1983. [ bib ]

[3] Tisseau, J. Thermodynamique macroscopique. Tech. rep., Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Brest, 121 pages, 1982. [ bib ]

[2] Tisseau, J. Mécanique des milieux déformables. Tech. rep., Université de Yaoundé (Cameroun), 111 pages, 1980. [ bib ]

[1] Tisseau, J. Thermodynamique statistique. Tech. rep., Université de Yaoundé (Cameroun), 147 pages, 1980. [ bib ]


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This file was generated with bibtex2html 1.91. 17 October 2011